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Books of original entry & ledgers. ACCN1. Lesson Objective. Must be able to give a basic description of the different ‘books & ledgers’ used Should be able to describe the process of recording transactions in a book of original entry

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lesson objective
Lesson Objective
  • Must be able to give a basic description of the different ‘books & ledgers’ used
  • Should be able to describe the process of recording transactions in a book of original entry
  • Could be able to explain what each book of original entry is used for as well as justify the need for these books
question
Question
  • If you were going to record the transaction of selling a car to Mr Smith, what details would you want to write down (record)
  • Make a list of what you would record and why you would need this information.
books of original entry
Books of original entry
  • First record of transactions
  • Separate book for each type of transaction
    • Sales
    • Purchases
    • Cash
    • Returns in etc
  • Date of transaction (Date order)
  • Details relating to the sales
  • Folio column (cross-reference to source document)
  • Monetary amounts
what books are used
What books are used?
  • Day Books – records the daily transactions
    • Sales day book
    • Purchases day book
    • Returns inwards day book
    • Returns outwards day book
  • Cash Book – records the receipts & payments of cash & cheques
  • Journal (General Journal)– all other items not included in the books above
  • Journal can also be interchanged with the words “day book”
what are ledgers
What are ledgers?
  • Summary of the day books made each day
  • Summaries placed in the Ledgers
    • Sales ledger – customer personal accounts
    • Purchase ledger – suppliers personal accounts
    • General ledger – remaining accounts
        • Expenses
        • Non-current assets
        • Capital
flow diagram
Flow Diagram

All business transactions

Classify – put same type of transactions together

Credit Sales

Credit Purchases

Returns Inwards

Returns Outwards

Cash receipts & Payments

Other Types

Enter in Sales Day Book

Enter in Purchases Day Book

Enter in Returns inwards Day Book

Enter in Returns Outwards Day Book

Enter in Cash Book

Enter in Journal

Enter in double entry accounts in the various ledgers – Sales, Purchases & General Ledger

types of accounts
Types of Accounts
  • Separated into two types of accounts
  • Personal Accounts –
    • Debtors
    • Creditors
  • Impersonal Accounts –
    • Real Accounts (possessions)
      • Buildings
      • Machinery
      • Inventory etc
    • Nominal Accounts
      • Expenses
      • Income
      • Capital
day books activity
Day Books Activity
  • Pg 14 & 15 of your text book
    • Complete the activity using the template given
  • Pg 21 of your text book
    • Complete the exam style question using the text book to help you.
cash book
Cash Book
  • Type of Ledger
  • Can be Two or Three column
  • Contains all details of cash & cheques received
  • Can be checked against the BANK STATEMENT when received from the bank
posting
Posting
  • Completing the entry of transactions into the accounts
  • “POST” items from sales day book to the sales ledger
  • “POST” items from cash book to the sales ledger
folio columns
Folio Columns
  • Mentioned before in the Day Books
  • Details that allow cross-reference to the Double Entry
  • Details of the name of the book and page number
  • For Example
    • in the cash book - SL45 – refers to the sales ledger, page 45
    • In the sales ledger – CB37 – refers to the cash book, page 37
discounts allowed received
Discounts allowed/received
  • Discounts are given for paying an account early
  • Usually a % of the total amount due
  • Appears in the “profit & loss” section of the Income Statement
  • NOT a cost of goods sold
  • NOT a deduction from the selling price
  • Discounts ALLOWED – given to the customers
  • Discounts RECEIVED – given to the business from suppliers
adding discounts to the general ledger
Adding discounts to the General Ledger
  • Total of discounts on the receipts side of cash book
    • Enter on DEBIT side of discounts ALLOWED account
  • Total of discounts on the payments side of the cash book
    • Enter on the CREDIT side of the discounts RECEIVED account
    • NOTE that the totals of the discounts are NOT ‘brought down’ in the Cash book as per the cash & bank accounts