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Approaches to treatment and therapy. Biological Treatments. Biological treatment [p406]. Attempting to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering the way an individual’s body functions. Psychopharmacology : The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.

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biological treatment p406
Biological treatment[p406]
  • Attempting to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering the way an individual’s body functions.
  • Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
drug therapy medication
Drug therapy(medication)
  • The most common form of biological treatment.
  • 4 Main Classes of Drugs

Antipsychotic drugs: Diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations and delusions, and help regulate sleep [p406]

Antianxiety drugs (tranquilizers): Reduce anxiety by making individuals less excitable and more calm [p407]

Antidepressent drugs: Regulate mood [p407]

Lithium carbonate: Used to treat bipolar disorder[p408]

psychosurgery p410
Psychosurgery [p410]
  • Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
  • Lobotomy: A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients
electroconvulsive therapy ect p411
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) [p411]
  • A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
psychotherapy p412
Psychotherapy [p412]
  • An emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
psychodynamic therapies p412
Psychodynamic therapies [p412]
  • the unconscious mind
  • early childhood experiences
  • therapist interpretation
psychoanalysis p412
Psychoanalysis [p412]

Psychoanalysis A method of psychotherapy developed by Freud emphasizing the exploration of unconscious motives and conflicts

Free associationIn psychoanalysis, a method of uncovering unconscious conflicts by saying freely whatever comes to mind

Dream analysis The technique used by psychoanalysts to interpret a person’s dreams

  • In psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
  • TransferenceThe patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent) [p412]
behavior therapy p413
Behavior therapy[p413]
  • Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavior
systematic desensitization p414
Systematic desensitization [p414]
  • A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli


aversive conditioning
Aversive conditioning
  • A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)

+ = 

cognitive therapy p415
Cognitive therapy [p415]
  • Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting by:
  • Examining the evidence for beliefs.
  • Considering other explanations for the behavior of other people.
  • Identifying assumptions and biases.
humanist therapies p416
Humanist therapies [p416]
  • Encourage people to understand themselves and to grow personally
  • Client-centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting environment to facilitate clients’ growth
    • Unconditional positive regard improves self-esteem.
    • The therapist’s role must be non-directive.
therapy formats
Conducted by a licensed therapist:

Individual therapy

Group therapy

Family therapy

Couple therapy

Conducted by group members:

Self-help support groups

Therapy Formats
eclectic approach
Eclectic approach
  • An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
guidelines for seeking help
Guidelines for Seeking Help
  • Identify the professional’s credentials
  • When starting therapy, give it some time before judging its usefulness
  • Be a thoughtful and careful consumer of mental health services.