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Essentials of Management Chapter 16. Managing Ineffective Performers. Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance. Insufficient mental ability and education Insufficient job knowledge Job stress and burnout Low motivation and loafing Excessive absenteeism and tardiness

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Essentials of management chapter 16

Essentials of ManagementChapter 16

Managing Ineffective Performers


Employee factors contributing to ineffective performance
Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance

  • Insufficient mental ability and education

  • Insufficient job knowledge

  • Job stress and burnout

  • Low motivation and loafing

  • Excessive absenteeism and tardiness

  • Emotional problems or personality disorder

  • Alcoholism and drug addiction


Employee factors contributing to ineffective performance continued
Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance, continued

  • Tobacco addiction or withdrawal symptoms

  • Conducting outside business on the job

  • Family and personal problems

  • Physical limitations

  • Preoccupying office romance

  • Fear of traveling, especially flying

  • Poor organizational citizenship behavior


Job factors contributing to ineffective performance
Job Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance continued

  • Ergonomics problems and repetitive motion disorder

  • Repetitive, physically demanding job

  • Built-in conflict (e.g., repo specialist)

  • Night-shift work assignment

  • Substandard industrial hygiene

  • “Sick” building (has airborne pollutants)


Managerial factors contributing to ineffective performance
Managerial Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance continued

  • Inadequate communication about job responsibilities

  • Inadequate feedback about performance

  • Inappropriate leadership style

  • Negative and untrusting attitude

  • Bullying or intimidating behavior by manager


Organizational factors contributing to ineffective performance
Organizational Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance

  • Organizational culture that tolerates poor performance

  • Poor ethical climate

  • Counterproductive work environment

  • Negative work group influences

  • Intentional threats to job security

  • Violence or threats of violence


Organizational factors contributing to poor performance continued
Organizational Factors Contributing to Poor Performance, continued

  • Sexual harassment

  • Workplace harassment in general (such as based on race or sexual orientation)

  • Reward structure that encourages deviant behavior (such as heavy commission pay)

    Note: Poor performance might be based on combination of factors related to employee, job, manager, and organization.


Essentials of management chapter 16

Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers continued

Define

Performance

Standards

Detect Deviation

From

Acceptable

Performance

Define and

Assess the

Cause

Select and

Implement

Action Plan

Set

Improvement

Goals

Communicate

With

Substandard

Performer

Re-evaluate

After Time

Interval

Continue or

Discontinue

Action Plan


Control model for managing ineffective performers continued
Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers, continued continued

  • Define performance standards (specify what is expected of employees).

  • Detect deviation from acceptable performance (use control measures including direct observation of performance).

  • Define and assess the cause (could be factor within person, job, company, or the manager).


Control model for managing ineffective performers continued1
Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers, continued continued

  • Communicate with substandard performer (discussion or confrontation about unacceptable performance or behavior; show care and concern).

  • Set improvement goals (attaining goal will correct performance deviation).

  • Select and implement action plan (vital part of remedying poor performance).


Control model for managing ineffective performance continued
Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performance, continued

  • Select and implement an action plan (continued)

  • Types of action plans (hundreds are possible, with some requiring an organizational program including the employee assistance program)

  • Implementation of the action plan (use steps 5-7 of control model in slide 8)


Control model for managing ineffective performance concluded
Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performance, concluded

  • Re-evaluate performance after time interval (when control model works, employee performance will improve).

  • Formal and informal reviews (could be sit-down review of quick checkup)

  • Positive reinforcement and punishment (depending on progress)

  • Continue or discontinue the action plan for improvement (stay alert for future problems)


Coaching and constructive criticism
Coaching and Constructive Criticism concluded

  • Coaching involves constructive criticism. Keep in mind the following suggestions:

  • Focus feedback on employee work and behavior rather than his or her attitudes and personality.

  • Be timely with negative feedback.

  • Listen actively and empathize.

  • Ask good questions (the simpler the better).


Coaching and constructive criticism continued
Coaching and constructive criticism, continued concluded

  • Engage in joint problem solving.

  • Offer constructive advice.

  • Give the poor performer an opportunity to observe and model someone who exhibits acceptable performance.

  • Obtain a commitment to change.

  • Conduct some coaching sessions outside of the performance evaluation.

  • Applaud good results.


Progressive discipline
Progressive Discipline concluded

  • The step-by-step application of corrective discipline, as follows:

  • Confrontation, discussion, counseling

  • Oral warning

  • Written warning

  • Suspension or disciplinary layoff

  • Discharge


Rules for applying discipline
Rules for Applying Discipline concluded

  • All employees should be notified of what punishments will be applied for what infractions.

  • Discipline should be applied immediately after infraction is committed.

  • The punishment should fit the undesirable behavior.

  • Managers should be consistent in their application of discipline for each infraction.


Rules for applying discipline continued
Rules for Applying Discipline, continued concluded

  • Disciplinary remedies should be applied impersonally to offenders.

  • Manager must document performance or behavior that led to punishment.

  • Focus attention on the unsatisfactory behavior or performance, not attitudes or traits.

  • When discipline is over, return to usual work relations.


Positive consequences of punishment
Positive Consequences of Punishment concluded

  • Employees who believe in just world likely to accept punishment when they violate rules or perform poorly.

  • When employees observe that another employee has been punished justly, they will rally on side of management.

  • Punishment informs employees that certain types of conduct will not be tolerated.


Four types of difficult people
Four Types of Difficult People concluded

  • Disgruntled workers are angry and see themselves as victims.

  • Passive-aggressive workers often express anger by neglecting to take action.

  • Uncivil workers are very rude.

  • Change resistors tend to live in past and have difficulty learning new procedures and adjusting to new initiatives.


Tactics for dealing with difficult people
Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People concluded

  • Combination of tactics usually required to deal with difficult person.

  • The more ingrained the behavior, the more difficult to change.

  • Give feedback and stay focused on issues at hand.

  • Use tact and diplomacy.

  • Use humor (but avoid sarcasm).


Tactics for dealing with difficult people continued
Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People, continued concluded

  • Give recognition and attention.

  • Listen and then confront or respond.

  • Stand fast and do not make unwarranted concessions.

  • Boost the difficult worker’s self-confidence.

  • If difficult person is your boss, defend yourself without a defensive tone.


Dealing with cynical behavior
Dealing with Cynical Behavior concluded

  • Cynicism is negative attitude toward employer, comprising three dimensions:

  • A belief that organization lacks integrity

  • Negative affect toward the organization

  • Tendencies toward disparaging and critical behavior

  • Ignoring cynical comments might work.

  • Demand evidence to support harsh comments.


Termination
Termination concluded

  • Employees must be fired for good cause (legally justifiable or good business reason).

  • Documentation helps avoid wrongful discharge.

  • According to due process, employees must be given a fair hearing before being dismissed.

  • Manager should deal with feelings of coworkers after employee is terminated.


Minimizing major errors in firing
Minimizing Major Errors in Firing concluded

  • Never fire an employee when angry.

  • Never fire an employee based on second-party information.

  • Be direct and clear in your language.

  • Avoid surprises. (For example, poor performance reviews can take the surprise element out of being terminated.)