Injuries of the upper and lower limbs
Download
1 / 19

Injuries of the upper and lower limbs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 145 Views
  • Uploaded on

Injuries of the upper and lower limbs. Some regional fractures and dislocation. Injuries of shoulder girdle . ( A) Fractures : Clavicle Scapula Proximal humerus , the most commonly fractures are those of greater tuberosity and surgical neck. (B) Dislocations

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Injuries of the upper and lower limbs' - cheryl


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Injuries of the upper and lower limbs

Injuries of the upper and lower limbs

Some regional fractures and dislocation


Injuries of shoulder girdle
Injuries of shoulder girdle

  • (A) Fractures :

  • Clavicle

  • Scapula

  • Proximal humerus , the most commonly fractures are those of greater tuberosity and surgical neck.

  • (B) Dislocations

  • (1) shoulder :common and mostly affects young adult male than female classified according to position of humeral head as:

  • Anterior (commonest)

  • Posterior (uncommon)

  • Inferior (rare)

  • (2) Acromio-clavicular joint :common injury mainly in young athletic

  • (3) Sterno-clavicular joint : rare dislocation

Scapula fracture

Acromio-clavicular dislocation


Fracture of the mid-shaft of clavicle

AP anterior dislocation glenohumeral

joint

relationship of radial nerve to fractures in the

spiral groove


The elbow and forearm
The elbow and forearm

  • Injuries of elbow

    A .Fractures

    1- fractures f the distal end of the humerus such as fractures of .

    a - superacondylar b -condylar c-infercodylar

    2- Fractures of proximal end of the ulna

    3- Fractures of proximal end of the radius

    4- avulsion fracture of the epiphysis of the humeral (medial and lateral condyle)

Partial avulsion of the medial epicondyle

  • SUPRACONDYLAR fractures

  • Are most often seen in children and the distal fragment may be  displaced posteriorly or anteriorly.

  • B. Dislocations

  • 1-acromio-cavicular joint dislocation : it is common injury mainly in young athletic

  • 2- sterno-clavicular joint dislocation : it is rare  

Undisplaced supracondylarfracture


Open reduction and fixation of monteggia fracture dislocation
Open reduction and fixation of Monteggia fracture-dislocation

  • MONTEGGIA FRACTURE DISLOCATION

  • This is a fracture of the proximal third of the ulna with dislocation of the proximal  (superior) radio-ulnar joint.

  • It usually arises due to fall on to the hand with body  twisting at the point of impact leading to a pronation of the forearm leading to  dislocation of the radial head.

  • Open reduction and fixation of Monteggia fracture dislocation

  • Radiographs of the forearm with the superior radio-ulnar joint is essential. 

  • dislocation. In adults this usually requires surgery, with post operative  

  • immobilisation of the arm in above elbow cast for six weeks to prevent redislocation  of the radial head. 


Fractures of the forearm
Fractures of the forearm

  • SINGLE FOREARM BONE FRACTURES

  • Fractures of the shaft of the radius or the ulna alone are uncommon and are usually caused by a direct blow. Ulnar fractures are rarely displaced were as in radial  

  • fractures of both bones (radius and ulnar) is relatively common in children.


Galeazzi fracture dislocation of the forearm
GALEAZZI FRACTURE DISLOCATION OF THE FOREARM

  • This fracture is caused by a fall on to the hand with a rotational force super-imposed.  

  • The radius fracture is in the lower third with dislocation of the inferior radio-ulna  Joint .

  • The treatment In adults is carried out by open reduction and plating of the radius.

open reduction and fixation of Galeazzi fracture -dislocation


Colles fracture
COLLES’ FRACTURE

  • Abraham Colles’ first described this injury in 1814 as a transverse fracture of the  distal radius with dorsal displacement of the distal fragment associated with fracture of ulnar styloid process.

  • It is one of the  commonest fractures of the elderly. The fracture occurs due to the application of a  longitudinal force in the length of the radius with the wrist in extension.

  • Radiographs show dorsal displacement, radial displacement (dinner fork) deformity . 


Smiths fracture
SMITHS’ FRACTURE

  • In this fracture the distal fragment is displaced towards the volar aspect of the wrist as  a result the fracture is often called a reversed Colles’.

  • It is often caused by a fall on  the back of the hand.

  • The forearm is placed in a cast with the wrist in extension. 

fracture through waist of scaphoid


Injuries to the scaphoid
INJURIES TO THE SCAPHOID

  • Scaphoid injuries account for almost 70% of the carpus injuries.

  • The mechanism of  injury is a fall on the dorsi-flexed hand. There is tenderness in s. Radiographs taken include lateral, two oblique and a A.P view of the  

  • carpus.

  • The fracture line is usually transverse and frequently through the waist of the  

  • scaphoid.

  • It is important to look for angulation of the distal fragment since this is  often a cause of non-union.

  • fracture through waist of scaphoid.

  • Sometimes early diagnosis is not possible however if there is an index of suspicion  

  • the forearm is placed in a scaphoid plaster with check radiographs at two weeks. The scaphoid glass holding position.  

  • Displaced fractures are treated by open reduction and compression screws.  


Metacarpal fractures
METACARPAL FRACTURES

  • Fractures of the fifth metacarpal are common

  • The fracture usually is at the neck or the shaft of the metacarpal and is usually spiral  in pattern.  

  • Bennett's fracture-subluxation

  • This is fracture of the base of the first metacarpal with oblique fracture line

  • Complete separation of fragemeublant allows posterior subluxation or dislocation of the remainder of the bone


Lower limb fractures
Lower limb fractures

  • INTRODUCTION

  • Fractures of the lower limb are common especially in the elderly.

  • They are often associated  with considerable morbidity

  • Pelvic fractures

  • Usually secondary to massive force, such as a road traffic accident or fallfrom a height.

  • FRACTURES OF THE FEMORAL NECK (INTRA-CAPSULAR)

  • This is one of the commonest fractures of the elderly, with vast number of the patients being  women in the ages between 60-80 years.

  • The fracture usually arises due to a fall on the  greater trochanter.

  • The classification commonly used to describe the displacement of the  femoral head is referred to as the Gardens classification which is composed of the following  stages: 

  • grade1: incomplete impacted fracture of the femoral neck. 

  • grade 2: complete undisplaced fracture. 

  • grade 3: complete fracture with moderate displacement. 

  • grade 4: severely displaced fracture. 

  • Clinically the patient complains of pain in the hip and the limb may be shortened and  externally rotated. 

Subcapital fracture

Pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident


Femoral shaft fractures
FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES

  • FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURE

  • This is usually a fracture of young adults and the fracture pattern may vary considerably  depending on the cause.

  • A spiral fracture is usually produced by a fall in which the foot has  been anchored whilst a twisting force is transmitted to the femur.

  • Transverse and oblique  fractures are often due to direct violence.

  • It has to be remembered that up to two units of blood may be lost from a femoral  shaft fracture and that shock may be present therefore it is important to ensure that blood is  available. Management.

  •  Primary survey. In young patients these injuries are usually high energy injuries which may be associated with additional trauma.   

  • A.P and lateral radiographs of the entire femur. There may well be an associatedsubcapital fracture with a fracture of the shaft of the femur

fixation of femoral shaft fracture


Intertrochanteric fractures of the femur
INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES OF THE FEMUR

  • The fracture is caused by a fall on to the greater trochanter and the fracture runs  between the lesser and greater trochanter

  • Management.

  • This is similar to subcapital fractures but the consent is for a Dynamic Hip screw. 

  • The classification used for these fractures is referred to as the Jensons classification.

Types of intertrochanteric fractures


Supracondylar fractures
SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES

  • These are produced as a result of direct violence or due to a fall in elderly patients. Clinically  

  • the knee is swollen and painful and movement should not be tested, however a record of the  

  • neurovascular status should be documented. Radiologically the fracture is seen just above the 

  • femoral condyles and the fracture pattern may be transverse or comminuted

  • Primary survey in young patients these injuries are usually high energy injuries which may be associated with additional trauma.


Fractures of the patella
FRACTURES OF THE PATELLA

  • Fractures of the patella may be caused by direct or indirect trauma. The direct injury may be  

  • due to a fall on the knee and fracture is usually easily visible in A.P radiographs. 

  • patello-femoral osteoarthritis is a common complication.

Transverse patella fracture


Fractures of the tibia and fibula
FRACTURES OF THE TIBIA AND FIBULA

  • These are relatively common fractures and in  addition open fractures of the tibia are more common than in any other long bone.

  • The  method of fracture is usually blunt trauma and the risk of complications is directly related to  

  • the degree and nature of soft tissue damage. 

  • The fracture pattern is also variable depending upon the nature of the injury and subsequently  

  • Fractures of the shaft of the tibia are usually cased by rotational forces and lead to spiral  fractures .

  • Fractures of the fibula may be due to direct violence or may occur in association with external rotation and abduction injuries of the ankle.

  • It is  important to exclude ankle injuries in the presence of fibular fractures. 

  • Fractures of both bones usually occur as a result of direct trauma with road traffic being the  commonest cause.

Fracture mid shaft of tibia, note the associated fracture of the fibula

Comminuted mid-femoral shaft fracture


Fractures of the ankle
FRACTURES OF THE ANKLE

  • The ankle is usually injured by indirect forces,  

  • The important factor in  ankle fractures is the stability of the ankle mortice.  

  • An important point to remember is that ankle injuries may present as fracture-dislocations.  In these injuries the skin may be tented and neurovascular structures may be compromised by  the displaced bone.

  • Bimalleolar fracture of the ankle

Weber C ankle fracture


Base of 5th metatarsal fracture

Posterior dislocation of the right hip.Note the acetabular

posterior column fracture.

Lateral view of a calcaneal fracture