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Books and the Power of Print

Books and the Power of Print

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Books and the Power of Print

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  1. Books and the Power of Print Chapter 2

  2. Books in the beginning “Books—the oldest mass medium—survive because they originate some of the biggest ideas and stories that resonate through other mass media.”

  3. The Early History of Books Development Stage as a mass medium. • Scrolls were made in Egypt from papyrus circa 2400 B.C.E. • Featured ink writing • Fast forward to 300 B.C.E. Greeks still using. • Chinese made paper from linen & cotton in 105 C.E.

  4. Papyrus was made from a plant material (reeds) found along the Nile river.

  5. Parchment gains popularity • Made of treated animal skins – it was stronger, more durable, & less expensive than papyrus. • Adopted in Europe.

  6. The Roman Codex Considered a “prototype” of a modern book, the codex appeared in 4th Century AD.

  7. Writing & Printing Innovations Entrepreneurial stage saw rules about language and design features codified. • Manuscript culture: medieval church • Illuminated manuscripts • Grammar rules developed • Punctuation

  8. Manuscript Culture During Europe’s Middle Ages (400-1500 C.E.) Christian priests & monks created Illuminated manuscripts of religious tracks and philosophical works.

  9. Printing Innovations • Block printing invented in China Diamond Sutra oldest dated block-printed book • 868 C.E. • Chinese invent movable type, 1000 C.E. • Major improvement in speed

  10. The Printing Industry Books become a Mass Medium • Gutenberg invents the printing press, 1453 • Bible printed on velum • Knowledge spreads, literacy increases. • Traditions challenged.

  11. Gutenberg statistics

  12. Publishing Industry • Two centuries after the printing press invention, publishing took off in Europe. • Colonies - 1630s The Whole Book of Psalms. • By 1760s all Colonies had printing shops. • Paperbacks, mid-1800s • Led to dime novels, pulp fiction • Linotype led to offset lithography, early 1900s • Reduces cost, speeds production

  13. Evolution of Modern Publishing Early “prestigious” publishing houses Developed in 1800s Foundation of modern book industry Oldest houses now part of larger conglomerates Industry decline from 1910 through the 1940s Depression World wars Comeback in 1950s and 1960s Synergy between books and other media

  14. The Conglomerates • Book publishing dominated by handful of major corporations with ties to international media conglomerates: CBS owns Simon & Schuster –Pocket Books News Corp owns HarperCollins-Avon Bertelsmann controls one-third of U.S. trade-book market, trade books are 10% of total U.S. market, imprint Penguin/Random House.

  15. Worry about conglomerates • They eliminate “distinctive style” of older houses; • They an control production costs and undersell independent publishers; • Their huge marketing budgets allow them to out-promote independent publishers. • Ultimately range and diversity of published authors decreases. • See figure 2.1 for 5 largest trade book publishers.

  16. Publishing Business • Acquisitions editor • Identifies talent • Handles subsidiary rights • Developmental editor • Handles feedback to author • Coordinates outside judges of the work • Copy editor • Fixes problems in writing or length • Design manager • Determines layout and cover design •

  17. Book Types: Tradition meets Technology • Trade books • Fiction and nonfiction • Other popular writing • Adult and juvenile divisions • Professional books • Law • Business • Medicine • Technical-scientific

  18. Book Types (cont.) • Textbooks • Elementary-high school (el-high) • Vocational • College • Mass market paperbacks • Instant books • Topical books published quickly after an event occurs

  19. Book Types (cont.) • Religious titles • Reference books • Encyclopedias • Dictionaries • Atlases • Almanacs • University press titles • Scholarly works • Specialized areas

  20. Electronic and Digital Publishing • Audio books • Feature actors or authors reading abridged versions of popular fiction and nonfiction trade books • Readily available for download onto iPods since early 2000s • E-books • Accessed via Web site and computer, portable reading devices, iPods, mobile phones • Kindle, 2007 • Market continues to develop • Borders chain hurt by missing the e-book boom

  21. Economics of Book Industry • Publishers generate primary revenue from book sales via: • Brick-and-mortar stores • Online stores • Book clubs • Mail order • Publishers may generate additional revenue via TV or movie rights.

  22. Books, TV and Film • TV helps promote books • Books about talk-show hosts, actors, and politicians all sell millions of copies • Oprah’s Book Club: one of the most influential book promotion forces on TV • Books are a source of ideas for many TV shows and films • Harry Potter series, Lord of the Rings, Pride and Prejudice

  23. Economics of Book Industry (cont.) • Publishers spend money on the following: • Production costs (overhead, development, paper, printing, binding, author advances) • Distribution (inventory, order fulfillment) • Marketing (advertisements, book dumps, author tours, and so on)

  24. Role of Books in a Democratic Society • Spreading notion of democracy itself • Inspiring people to drive change • Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Silent Spring • The Omnivore’s Dilemma • Enabling sharing of ideas, opinions

  25. Censorship and Banned Books • Censorship and book banning in U.S. • Books challenged in schools and libraries • People attempt removal over: • sexually explicit passages • occult themes • violence • homosexual themes • racism

  26. Other Challenges Books • Social component of reading is declining • Independent bookstores closing • Libraries face budget cuts • Physical deterioration • Books printed on acid-based paper deteriorating • Effort made to preserve books digitally

  27. Harry Potter: Blockbuster • Joanne Rawlings submitted her novel about a boy wizard to Christopher Little Literary Agents in 1997. • London based Bloomsbury(indie) agreed to publish it in 1997. • Scholastic publishers came out in the U.S. • 12 million copies sold by J.K. Rawlings and renamed “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone,” in 1998.

  28. Harry Potter • Seven volumes, 500 million copies sold, reprinted in 70 languages. • Dominated the New York Times best-sellers list with four titles taking the top positions. • Complaints led to the 2000 creation of a new “children’s list” so other books could have a chance. • Changed publishing forever.

  29. Study Questions • Why was the invention of the printing press important and revolutionary? • Why did publishing houses develop? • What are the main ways in which digital technologies have changed the publishing industry? • What are the main sources of revenue in book publishing? • How do books play a vital role in our society?