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Ways of Collecting Information. Interviews Questionnaires Ethnography Joint Application Design Books and leaflets in the organization Prototypes. Interviews. Interview Purpose Interview Planning Interview Time Interview Recording After the interview. Interview.

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Ways of Collecting Information

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ways of collecting information
Ways of Collecting Information
  • Interviews
  • Questionnaires
  • Ethnography
  • Joint Application Design
  • Books and leaflets in the organization
  • Prototypes
  • Interview Purpose
  • Interview Planning
  • Interview Time
  • Interview Recording
  • After the interview
  • Types of information gathered by interview
    • Opinion: (what is the problem?)
    • Feelings: (employees attitude, culture)
    • Goals: (organization goals)
    • Informal procedures: (how work is actually done?)
interview planning
Interview Planning
  • Read background material
  • Establish interview objectives
  • Decide who to interview
  • Prepare the interviewee
    • Make appointment
    • How long (maximum 45 minutes)
    • What is the objective of the interview
  • Write questions and check the structure
types of questions
Types of Questions
  • Open-ended Questions
    • Give the user the freedom to answer in any length
  • Closed Questions
    • The answer is always finite (bipolar questions)
  • Probe (follow-up) Questions
    • A sign of listening (ask for clarifications)
open ended questions
Open-ended Questions
  • Put the interviewee at ease
  • Pick up vocabulary
  • Get details
  • Suggest other questions
  • More interesting for interviewee
  • Easier for interviewer
  • Lose control of interview
  • Take a lot of time
  • Interviewer is not ready
  • No clear objective
  • Difficult to analyze
closed questions
Closed Questions
  • Save time
  • Easy to analyze
  • Keep control of interview
  • Cover lots of ground
  • Get to the point
  • Boring for interviewee
  • Can’t get details and miss useful information
  • No emotional contact
don t
  • Avoid leading questions
    • You will get biased answers
  • Avoid double-barreled questions
    • They can answer one and forget the other
    • Hard to distinguish which answer is which
organizing interviews
Organizing Interviews
  • Pyramid (Inductive)
    • Start with detailed and closed questions, then open questions
  • Funnel (deductive)
    • Start with open-ended questions then closed
  • Diamond
    • Start with specific closed questions, then general open questions then conclude with closed
  • No order
organizing interviews1
Organizing Interviews
  • Pyramid:
    • Used with someone who doesn’t want to speak
    • Needs introduction to the subject
  • Funnel
    • Get all the details quickly
    • Give freedom to speaker
  • Diamond:
    • Takes longer
    • Keep the speaker interested
organizing interviews2
Organizing Interviews
  • Structured Interview are easier to analyze
  • Interviewer has more control
  • Needs less training
  • Unstructured interviews are more flexible
interview time
Interview Time
  • Be on time
  • Introduce yourself
  • Say the purpose of the interview
  • Explain the recording technique
  • Pick up special vocabulary
  • Listen to redirect your questions accordingly
  • Control the length of the answers
  • Rephrase to make sure you understood correctly
  • Last question: Anything to add?
  • Summarize and tell him what is next.
recording the interview
Recording the Interview
  • Audio: (Take permission and tell the interviewee how it will be used)
    • Advantages:
      • Full accurate record of interview
      • Better eye contact
    • Disadvantages
      • Interviewee may be nervous
  • Note Taking
    • Advantages:
      • Could be the only way to record
      • Keep the interviewer alert
interview report
Interview Report
  • Write it as soon as possible
  • Captures the important points in Interview
joint application design jad
Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Alternative to personal interview
  • Used for requirement analysis and user interface design
  • Includes users, analysts and mangers
  • Meet for 2-4 days outside offices
  • Define the objectives of the sessions
  • Brainstorming
  • Includes:
    • Session leader
    • Session recorder
    • Session observer (advisor)
  • Give participants papers about the workshop days before it for preparation
  • Analyst doesn’t ask, but acts as an expert
  • Requires certain room facilities (e.g. presentation equipments)
jad personnel
JAD Personnel

JAD involves:

  • Analysts
  • Users
  • Executives
  • Observers
  • Scribe
  • Session leader
  • Advantages:
    • Save time
    • Users can interact with analysis process
    • Creativity (different people looking for solution)
  • Disadvantages:
    • Requires commitment of time from people
    • Requires certain organization structure
  • An information gathering technique which can be used to collect:
    • Beliefs: what is right or wrong?
    • Attitude: what they want?
    • Behavior: what do they do?
    • Characteristics of users
  • Used before interviews to sense where the problem is
  • Used after interviews to quantify results from interviews
  • Used if you want to find the percentage of people who support/disagree with something
  • Used to gather massive data about problem
  • Used if the users are distributed
preparation of questionnaire
Preparation of Questionnaire
  • Identify the objective of questionnaire
    • Decide who gets the questionnaire (sampling)
  • Prepare the questionnaire
  • Write the questionnaire
  • Administer the data
  • Questionnaires are more difficult:
    • The analyst is not their to clarify things and follow up
  • So…
    • Questions should be clear and short
    • Use familiar vocabulary for respondent
    • Order the questions logically
    • Anticipate the respondent answer to plan the administration process
questions types
Questions Types
  • Open Questions:
    • Should be narrow enough to anticipate answer
    • Difficult to administer (analyze and interpret)
    • Easy to prepare
  • Closed Questions:
    • Put all the options of an answer
    • Sometimes mutually exclusive
    • Easy to administer (Quantified)
  • Assigning numbers or symbols to measure some attitude
    • Feelings: (hate, like, not bothered, like a lot)
    • Belief: (agree, disagree, disagree strongly, don’t care)
forms of measurement
Forms of Measurement
  • Nominal: options are classifications
  • Ordinal: options are ordered classification but the difference between them are not specified
  • Interval: difference between options are equal
  • Ratio: represents real measurements (have absolute zero)
after preparing the questionnaire
After Preparing the Questionnaire
  • Ask yourself, is the questionnaire:
    • Valid?
      • Is it measuring what you want to measure?
    • Reliable?
      • Does it provide consistent answers?
      • External Reliability: on different settings (same conditions)
      • Internal Reliability: within the same setting, but questions asked in different ways
problems with scales
Problems with Scales
  • Leniency:
    • Rate everything to be good
  • Central tendency:
    • Rate everything as average
  • Halo problem:
    • Impression from one question carries to another
solving the central problem
Solving the central problem
  • Create a scale with more points (e.g. 5 instead of 3)
  • Make differences between the 2 ends small
  • Change the strength of the description words


questionnaire format
Questionnaire Format
  • Allow white space
  • Allow space to answer
  • Tell the respondent what to do
  • Consistency in style (color, font, positions of items, sectioning)
  • Order of questions
  • Cluster related questions
  • Put important questions to the respondent first
  • Delay questions that are controversial
  • Gather all the respondents and do one setting
  • Personally hand out questionnaires and collect them
  • Respond is responsible for collecting, filling and returning the questionnaire
  • Use mail to send and receive questionnaire
  • Distribute it electronically (web site, email)
  • Sampling is a process of systematically selecting representative elements of a population.
    • Which of the key documents and Web sites should be sampled.
    • Which people should be interviewed or sent questionnaires.
sampling design steps
Sampling Design Steps

To design a good sample, a systems analyst needs to follow four steps:

  • Determining the data to be collected or described.
  • Determining the population to be sampled.
  • Choosing the type of sample( random, based on criteria)
  • Deciding on the sample size (based on cost and time)
obtaining hard data
Obtaining Hard Data

Hard data can be obtained by:

  • Analyzing quantitative documents such as records used for decision making.
  • Performance reports.
  • Records.
  • Collect blank forms
  • Ecommerce and other transactions.
quantitative documents
Quantitative Documents
  • Collect blank forms and notice their:
    • type
    • Distribution method
    • Who receive them
analyzing qualitative documents
Analyzing Qualitative Documents

Qualitative documents include:

  • Memos.
  • Bulletin boards
  • Organization Web sites.
  • Manuals.
  • Policy handbooks.
  • Observation provides insight on what organizational members actually do.
  • See firsthand the relationships that exist between decision makers and other organizational members.
    • Behavior
    • Activities
    • Environment

STRuctured OBservation of the Environment-- a technique for observing the decision maker's environment

  • Office location (shows interactions and flow of info.)
  • Storage of data
  • Use of computer equipments
  • External information sources.
  • Organization and neatness