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Imperialism and America. Chapter 10 Section One. What is Imperialism?. Turn to the person next to you and answer the following questions in your notes: What is imperialism? Give an example of a imperialism. (Recall on previous classes). Imperialism and the U.S.

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imperialism and america

ImperialismandAmerica

Chapter 10

Section One

what is imperialism
What is Imperialism?
  • Turn to the person next to you and answer the following questions in your notes:
    • What is imperialism?
    • Give an example of a imperialism. (Recall on previous classes)
imperialism and the u s
Imperialism and the U.S.
  • Imperialism: the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over a weaker territory
  • Three Reasons for Expansion:

1) Military

    • Admiral Alfred T. Mahan- urged the government to build a strong naval power
  • 2) Economic
    • New farming equipment created a surplus
    • U.S. needed more raw materials from foreign countries
  • 3) Cultural/Religious
    • Cultural factors justified imperialism
    • Social Darwinism- belief that free-market competition would lead to survival of the fittest
    • Spread Christianity and Civilization to Inferior Countries
acquiring alaska
Acquiring AlAska
  • William Seward- Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson
    • Supported expansionism
    • Arranged the purchase of Alaska for $7.2 million from Russia in 1867
  • Many were unsure of this territory at first but…
    • What is the significance of Alaska?
taking hawaii
Taking Hawaii
  • Why was Hawaii important?
    • Sugar Plantations- ¾ of the wealth on the island
  • Duty-free was eliminated through the McKinley Tariff of 1890
    • Made plantation owners pay higher taxes on selling their product to the U.S.
  • Pearl Harbor built as a Naval Port in 1887
  • King Kalakaua- supported American business
    • Dies and Queen Liliuokalani
    • “A Hawaii for Hawaiians”
  • John L. Stevens headed a revolution with help from U.S. Marines and overthrew the government
    • Sanford B. Dole headed the new government
    • President McKinley annexed Hawaii
exit slip
Exit Slip
  • What is Imperialism?
warm up 2 21
Warm-Up 2/21
  • What is imperialism?
  • How did the U.S. acquire Alaska?
  • What is Yellow Journalism?
american interest in cuba
American Interest in Cuba
  • 1854- U.S. attempted to buy Cuba from Spain
    • Spain did not accept
  • Group Discussion
  • Why do you think the U.S. wanted Cuba?
    • Discuss and write down on a piece of paper with your group- TURN IN
fight for cuba independence
Fight for Cuba Independence
  • Revolt of 1886
    • Unsuccessful attempt for independence but abolished slavery
  • The Second War for Independence
    • Jose Martí- Cuban poet and journalist who launched the revolution in 1895
      • Organized guerilla campaign that destroyed plantations
    • General ValerianoWeyler sent by Spain
      • Establishment of concentration camps- why?
american interests and public opinion
American Interests and Public Opinion
  • Split opinion over the actions of the Spanish Empire
    • Businessmen supported Spain- Why?
    • American people were enthusiastic about the rebel cause
      • “Give me liberty or give me death!”- Who said this?
  • Welyer’s actions fueled public opinion in America
    • New York Journal- William Randolph Hearst
    • New York World- Joseph Pulitzer
      • Both published exaggerated reports
    • Yellow Journalism: exaggerates the news to lure and enrage readers
assignment 2 homework what would you do
Assignment #2 (Homework)What would you do?
  • Money vs. Independence
  • YOU are President McKinley and are being urged from two different parties to react against the recent struggle in Spain.
  • Business Party: wants to support Spain and end the rebellion to improve economic relations with the U.S.
  • Public Opinion Party: wants the U.S. to react against Spain and support independence.
  • You must write TWO paragraphs describing how YOU would approach this situation. You may decide to support only one party or find a way to make both parties happy.
  • Explain how you will resolve the conflict
  • Describe how this outcome will impact both parties
exit slip1
Exit Slip
  • Define “Yellow Journalism”
  • Who was ValerianoWeyler and what did he do?
  • Do you understand what to do on the Yellow Journalism Project? If not, please ask a question.
mckinley s diplomatic approach
McKinley’s Diplomatic Approach
  • McKinley wanted to avoid war and take a diplomatic approach
    • Successful at first but doesn’t last long
    • Spain recalled Weyler
      • Modified concentration policy and offered limited self-government
  • De Lôme Letter- February 1898
    • Private letter written by Spanish Minister to the U.S. Enrique Dupuy de Lôme
    • Called and criticized McKinley for being weak and a “bidder for admiration of the crowd”
    • Americans angered by insult
u s s maine explodes cont
U.S.S. Maine Explodes cont.
  • U.S.S. Maine blew up on February 15, 1898
    • Sent to bring home American citizens in danger
    • No one really knew why or how it exploded but journalists exaggerated the reports
    • April 20, 1898- Congress agreed and declared war against Spain
  • War in the Caribbean
    • Naval blockade of Cuba
      • Admiral William T. Sampson sealed the harbors
    • 125,000 Americans volunteered to fight
    • Rough Riders
      • 1st United States Volunteer Calvary led by Theodore Roosevelt
defeating the spanish cuba
Defeating the Spanish (CUBA)
  • San Juan Hill
    • Most famous land battle- very strategic hill
    • Rough Riders played a minor role
      • Roosevelt declared hero
  • Spanish fleet destroyed while trying to escape Cuba
  • U.S. invaded Puerto Rico on July 25, 1898
spanish american war in the philippines
Spanish-American War in the Philippines
  • Spanish-American War began in the Philippines before it struck in Cuba
  • April 30, 1898- George Dewey steamed the navy into Manila harbor and opened fire on the fleet
    • Dewey gathered support from Filipinos who wanted independence
    • 11,000 Americans joined rebel forces led by Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Spanish troops surrendered by August
treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • Spain sold the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million
  • Spain freed Cuba
  • Imperialism- McKinley faces the decision of what to do with the Philippines.
    • Civilize and Christianize them
      • Filipinos had been Christian for years
    • Should the Philippines be annexed?
  • The treaty decided that the U.S. now included Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
slide25
Cuba
  • Platt Amendment (1901)
    • U.S. insisted Cuba should add several provisions to its constitution
      • Cuba could not make treaties that threatened their independence or territory
      • Cuba was not to go into debt
      • U.S. could buy or lease land for naval and refueling stations
    • The U.S. Army would not withdraw until Cuba agreed
    • Put into action in 1903
      • Cuba became a protectorate- a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power
      • Protected American business interests
the philippines
The Philippines
  • Angered over annexation- Emilio Aguinaldo believed they would get their freedom
    • Began a revolt in 1899
    • Filipinos were treated similar to how the Spanish treated them
    • Filipinos and African Americans- similarities
    • 20,000 rebels died, 4,000 American lives lost
    • Cost $400 million- 20 times more than what it cost to purchase it
homework
Homework
  • Assignment #3- Chapter 10.3: Page 358
    • Assessment questions #1 and #2
      • #1- Definitions
      • #2- Taking Notes- Timeline
anti imperialist league
Anti-Imperialist League
  • Organization established on June 15, 1898
    • Battled American annexation of the Philippines as insular area
    • Believed imperialism violated republicanism
      • “Consent of the governed”
    • Typically consisted of older generations
      • Grover Cleveland (former President)
      • William Jennings Bryan
      • Mark Twain (author and commentator)
      • Andrew Carnegie (industrialist, capitalist, philanthropist)
      • Jane Addams (progressive social worker)
open door in china
Open Door in China
  • Why does the U.S. want to be in China?
  • What is the Open Door Policy?
foreign influence in china
Foreign Influence in China
  • Philippines was the “gateway to China”- very strategic location
  • John Hay’s Open Door Notes
    • Issued by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay
    • Proposed to other imperialist nations that the nations should share their trading rights with the U.S.
      • No single nation would have a monopoly
  • Boxer Rebellion in China
    • Boxers- underground secret society who pledged to rid the country of “foreign devils”
      • Killed thousands of missionaries and converts
      • August 1900- Britain, France, Germany, and Japan along with 2,500 U.S. soldiers marched on the Chinese capital
      • Two months of conflict- thousands of people died
second series of open door notes
Second Series of Open Door Notes
  • Created to prevent the influence of European powers in China after the rebellion
    • U.S. economic growth depended on exports
    • Felt the U.S. had a right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open
    • Fear that closing an area of American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S. survival
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • Why did the U.S. want to have a presence in Puerto Rico?
  • What differed between Puerto Rico and other countries (Cuba and the Philippines) after the Spanish-American War?
      • In terms of how the U.S. was involved after the war.
puerto rico1
Puerto Rico
  • LuizMuñoz Rivera- Puerto Rican spokesman and publisher was one of the most vocal advocates to Puerto Rican self-rule
    • Not all wanted independence, some wanted statehood (U.S.)
      • U.S. gave no promises after the Spanish-American War
    • Military Rule
      • General Nelson A. Miles- soldiers took control and assured the people that they were providing protection
      • Strategic location of Puerto Rico
    • Foraker Act- ended military rule and set up a civil government
      • Gave U.S. President power to appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and upper legislature
        • Citizens could only elect lower legislature
        • 1917- Congress gave the right for Puerto Ricans to get U.S. citizenship and right to elect both houses of legislature
quiz 2 27
Quiz 2/27
  • What is the Open Door Policy?
  • Name one similarity and one difference of how Puerto Rico was influenced by the U.S. compared to other countries the U.S. had influence in.
warm up 2 29
Warm-Up 2/29
  • What is this political cartoon saying or inferring?
slide37

William McKinley

1897-1901

William Howard Taft

1909-1913

Woodrow Wilson

1913-1921

Theodore Roosevelt

1901-1909

theodore roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1901: Assassination of President William McKinley
    • Placed VP Theodore Roosevelt into presidency
    • Building on the Open Door Notes, mediated a settlement between Japan and Russia
  • Russo-Japanese War
    • Tsar Nicholas the II declared war on Japan over territory over Manchuria and Korea disputes
    • Roosevelt had both leaders on his yacht
      • Agreed to terms to end the war
      • Allowed the U.S. and Japan to respect each other’s interests and processions in East Asia and the Pacific
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901- gave the U.S. exclusive rights to build and control the canal
  • U.S. needed permission from Colombia who had ruled Panama at that time
    • French agent who had came to the U.S. to buy the company’s route, helped organize a rebellion against Colombia
    • Panama receives their independence
      • Agrees with the U.S. to $10 million to buy the route/land and an annual rent of $250,000 of the Canal Zone
  • Building the Canal = One of the world’s greatest engineering feats
    • By 1913- 43,300 people were employed
    • Gatan Lake
  • August 15, 1914- Canal Opens for Business
panama canal main points
Panama CanalMain Points
  • American Business saved money when they shipped goods
  • Travel between the East and the West
  • It allowed for a strong military presence in Central America
theodore roosevelt1
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Latin America
    • Many countries owed European countries for railroads
    • Roosevelt feared Europeans would intervene if Latin American countries defaulted.
    • Monroe Doctrine: Europeans stay out of Latin American affairs
    • Roosevelt Corollary: was added to the Monroe Doctrine
      • Any disorder would “force the U.S. to exercise international police power”
        • Protecting economic interests
      • Big Stick Diplomacy: Latin American policy
        • “Speak softly and carry a big stick”- African proverb
william taft
William Taft
  • U.S. practiced their police power
  • Nicaragua: After the rebellion it left the country bankrupt
    • Allowed the U.S. to take over railroad systems and industries
  • Dollar Diplomacy: foreign policy using the U.S. government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American business people
woodrow wilson
Woodrow Wilson
  • Wilson added to the Monroe Doctrine a “moral” tone
    • Missionary Diplomacy: U.S. had the moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government
      • Any country who was oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests
      • Hope of spreading democratic government
      • Mex