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Turtle Dissection
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  1. Turtle Dissection

  2. Scientists believe other land vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish

  3. TURTLE ANIMALIA LATIN meaning KINGDOM _____________ PHYLUM ____________________________ SUBPHYLUM ___________________________ CLASS _______________________________ ORDER _____________________________ CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” REPTILIA “to creep or crawl” CHELONIA “tortoise”

  4. INTEGUMENT THICK, DRY, SCALY SKIN Contains KERATIN (protein) LIPIDS & PROTEINS make it water tight

  5. ADVANTAGES over thin, moist Amphibian skin • WATER TIGHT - Keeps them from drying out on land • TOUGH PROTECTION – • - prevents injury, keeps out germs, • - prevents wear & tear on skin when crawling around on land

  6. Image from: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/canwaters-eauxcan/bbb-lgb/creatures-animaux/reptiles/index_e.asp

  7. SHELL IS LIVING PART OF BODY Expanded ribs form shell Can regenerate damaged scutes Growth rings tell age

  8. Limbs at right angles to body

  9. Location of Pelvic and Pectoral girdles allow turtle to pull limbs into shell http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~eeob/anatomy/eeob512/miscellaneous/turtleskeleton.jpg

  10. Nictitating membrane Tympanic membrane External nares Only reptiles with NO TEETH

  11. Claws on feet

  12. VENT

  13. WHAT SEX IS IT? FEMALES: MALES: Short tail Longer tailVent closer Vent farther from body

  14. CURVE OF PLASTRON MALE PLASTRON slightly CONCAVE to fit on top of female FEMALE PLASTRON slightly CONVEXto make more room for eggs

  15. Penis deposits sperm inside female’s body INTERNAL FERTILIZATION Increases chances of sperm and egg meeting Image from: http://www.turtletimes.com/PhotoContest/2001PhotoContests/May2001/Geoemyda%20spengleri%20mating.jpg

  16. GLOTTIS – respiratory opening

  17. PHARYNX GULLET GLOTTIS INTERNAL NARES

  18. Ectothermic • Body heat comes from surrounding environment • Slow metabolism/low activity in cold places • “cold-blooded” • EX: All invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles

  19. ECTOTHERMIC • ADVANTAGES: • Slow metabolism means you can survive on 1/10 the food as a same size endotherm • DISADVANTAGES: • Can’t to live in extremely cold places • (NO reptiles in Arctic) • Can’t keep up max activity level for long

  20. Endothermic “warm-blooded” • Create own body heat • FAST metabolism allows for: high activity for extended time ability to live in variety of environments • EX: Birds, Mammals

  21. PELVIC & PECTORAL GIRDLES inside ribs PERICARDIALMEMBRANE Covers & protects heart

  22. EXCRETORY URINARY BLADDER

  23. Vent Image from:http://theturtlepages.crosswinds.net/anatomy/index.html

  24. LIVER Makes BILE Stores GLYCOGEN Stores VITAMINS Processes TOXINS including nitrogen waste for kidneys

  25. Image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/Studyimages/turtle/turtledissectlist.html

  26. GALL BLADDER Stores BILE

  27. STOMACH Add ACID; Start DIGESTION; Grind & mash food

  28. MESENTERY

  29. PANCREAS In mesentery near first loop of small intestine Makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, GLUCAGON

  30. SMALL INTESTINE Duodenum Ileum LARGE INTESTINE(Also called COLON)

  31. CLOACA

  32. SPLEEN Make, store, recycle RBC’s

  33. TURTLE HEART 3 CHAMBERS 2 atria; 1 ventricle Sinus Venosus & Conus Arteriosus are smaller Image from: BIODIDAC PARTIAL SEPTUM: begins to divide ventricle into two sides

  34. Sinus venosus    Bodyorgans   RIGHTAtrium LEFTAtrium  Lungs       Conus arteriosus  Ventricle  FROG/TURTLE CIRCULATION

  35. ENDOCRINE Glands that make hormones that control other body organs PANCREAS controls blood sugar levels THYROID: located above heart Makes hormones that control heart rate, blood pressure; cell development and growth

  36. TRACHEA & ESOPHAGUS

  37. BRONCHI

  38. LUNGS HAVE ALVEOLI FROG LUNG TURTLE LUNG Increase surface area for more gas exchange Images modified from: http://www.stclement.pvt.k12.il.us/studentWeb/science98/GarrittPatM/alveoli.gif

  39. Images modified from:http://theturtlepages.crosswinds.net/anatomy/index.html REPRODUCTIVE MALE FEMALE Vent Vent

  40. OVARY- • make eggs OVIDUCT- • add shells • transport to cloaca

  41. EPIDIDYMIS –sperm mature here; add tails TESTES – make sperm Image from: BIODIDAC

  42. INTERNAL FERTILIZATION Increases chances of sperm and egg meeting Image from: http://www.turtletimes.com/PhotoContest/2001PhotoContests/May2001/Geoemyda%20spengleri%20mating.jpg

  43. DIRECT DEVELOPMENT Image from: http://www.neuroscientist.com/animimag/turtles.htm

  44. SEX is determined by TEMPERATURE of NEST Image from:http://www.parcplace.org/documents/GeneralHerpInfo/learnabout2.htm

  45. Types of Reproduction

  46. Ways offspring enter world OVIPARITY- Reproductive tract encloses egg in a protective shell Eggs deposited outside body to hatch Nourishment comes from egg EX: Most reptiles,birds & a few mammals (monotremes)

  47. Ways offspring enter world VIVIPARITY- No shell around egg Eggs retained in body Nourished by mother through placenta Offspring are born alive Ex: Mammals & some reptiles