Furnariidae: Upucerthia, Ochetorhynchus : 8 species. Ground-probers. Mimidae: Toxostoma : 7 species. Alaudidae: Alaemon : 2 species. Bill longer than typical insectivore, decurved, sharply pointed. Ground-probers typically have plain backs that match substrate. Upupidae: 1 species.
Mimidae: Toxostoma: 7 species
Alaudidae: Alaemon: 2 species
Bill longer than typical insectivore, decurved, sharply pointed. Ground-probers typically have plain backs that match substrate.
Upupidae: 1 species
Two orders, at least 4 families; at least 18 species
Vangidae: Falculea, 1 species
Fringillidae: Hemignathus; ca. 4 species
Like Ground-probers, but back typically with some streaks. This set of birds are not as specialized for climbing as the Dendrocolaptidae and Certhiidae – their toes have extra-dtrong and curved toenails, but their tails are not specilaized for bracing against a branch.
Paradisaeidae: Epimachus, 2 species
Phoeniculidae: wood-hoopoes, 8 species
Two orders, at least 6 families; at least 70 species
Bill very long, typically rather blunt at tip. Legs long for wading.
Scolopacidae:, ca. 85 species
Ibidorhynchidae: Ibisbill, 1 species
Philepittidae: Neodrepanis, 2 species
Meliphagidae: honeyeaters, ca. 30 species
Fringillidae: Vestiaria, 1 species
Although most flower-probers are brightly colored, some that are not territorial are dull – you won’t be tested on a dull one.
Nectariniidae: sunbirds, ca. 125 species
Most kingfishers don’t eat fish but instead are landbirds that eat large insect and small vertebrates; these species are all in the Afrotropics, Indomalayan, and Australasian (e.g., Kookabura) regions, and their bills differ subtly from those of fish-eating kingfishers.
8 orders, 9 families, ca. 180 species
Ardeidae: 65 species
Note: there are a number of fish-eaters that you will not be tested on that have bills that are basically dagger-shaped but are slightly decurved at the tip, but not really hooked: boobies, gannets, some storks, some terns, some penguins.
Alcedinidae: ca. 25 species
Phaethontidae: tropicbirds, 3 species
Terns and tropicbirds dive-bomb fish from the air.
Ciconiidae: ca. 15 species
Herons and storks ambush fish by stalking from shore; kingfishers dive-bomb them from perches (although a couple of species also do it while hovering in flight).
Laridae: terns, ca. 40 species
Picidae: 210 species
Bark-driller bills superficially look like dagger-shaped fish-eating bills, but in cross-section they are diamond-shaped, not laterally compressed (like a knife blade), and are often blunt at the tip.
Although they don’t drill bark the way woodpeckers do, note that there are several other groups that have similar bill shapes for pecking at hard substrates, e.g., nuthatches (Sittidae) and turnstones (Arenaria).