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Trait-based Analyses for Fishes and Invertebrates in Streams. Stoeckerecological.com. Mark Pyron. River Habitat T emplet. Ideas for species traits-environmental filters (from Southwood 1977; used by Poff 1997). Why Traits?. Compare evolutionarily distinct systems

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river habitat t emplet

River Habitat Templet

Ideas for species traits-environmental filters

(from Southwood1977; used by Poff 1997)

why traits

Why Traits?

Compare evolutionarily distinct systems

Species-habitat relationships

Ecosystem processes

major assumption
Major assumption!

Present day habitat conditions match present day traits in organisms

slide5

Which traits?

Which analyses?

What are results?

What are problems?

which traits
Which traits?
  • Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of habitat define where and when the organisms use habitat
traits
Traits:
  • Should vary with ecological gradients
slide8
and . . .
  • Organisms with same traits occur in multiple biogeographical regions
    • Different taxa
traits of macroinvertebrates
Traits of macroinvertebrates
  • Trophic
    • Shredders, filterer-collector, grazer, predator
  • Locomotion
  • Body size
  • Voltinism
  • Respiration technique
traits of macroinvertebrates1
Traits of macroinvertebrates
  • Life history: reproductive strategies
    • Body size
    • Egg size, number, shape, attachment
    • Generations / year
    • Oviposition period -season
    • Incubation time
    • Clutch number
traits of fishes
Traits of fishes
  • Habitat preferences:
    • Stream size (small, medium, large)
    • Discharge
    • Temperature
    • Depth
    • Substrate size
    • Canopy
traits of fishes1
Traits of fishes
  • Life history
    • Body size
    • Lifespan
    • Age at maturity
    • Egg size
    • Fecundity
traits of fishes2
Traits of fishes
  • Dispersal ability
  • Colonization ability
traits of fishes3
Traits of fishes
  • Reproductive guilds
  • IBI metrics
  • Feeding and ecosystem interactions
  • Morphology
analyses patterns heino et al 20131
Analyses – patterns Heino et al. 2013
  • Across catchment
    • RCC predictions
    • Do organisms respond same to environmental gradient?
analyses patterns heino et al 20132
Analyses – patterns Heino et al. 2013
  • Across catchment
  • Among region differences or convergence
    • Same traits in different local communities?
    • Compare trait responses to same gradients in different geographical regions
analyses patterns heino et al 20133
Analyses – patterns Heino et al. 2013
  • Across catchment
  • Among region differences or convergence
  • Across community – large extent or w/in catchment
    • Trait variation across local communities in drainage basin at large geographical extent
analyses tests heino et al 2013

Analyses – testsHeino et al. 2013

Indirect ordination: CA, PCA

Direct ordination: CCA, RDA, RLQ

Group test: MRPP

Life history strategy: ANOVA

Niche Model: Maximum Entropy

Trait diversity: regression, ANOVA

results macroinvertebrate traits
Results: macroinvertebrate traits
  • Human impacts
    • Traits discriminate river reaches
    • Taxonomy could not
    • Genus level or family level sufficient
    • Gayraud et al. 2003
results macroinvertebrate t rait richness
Results: macroinvertebrate trait richness
  • Increases along local, catchment, and geographical gradients
  • Bêche& Statzner2009
results macroinvertebrate traits studies
Results: macroinvertebrate traits studies
  • Trait richness correlated with genus richness Beche & Statzner 2009
results fish traits
Results: fish traits
  • Hydrologic variability:
    • Resource generalists vs. specialists
    • Poff& Allan 1995
results fish traits1
Results: fish traits
  • Hydrologic variability:
    • Life-history traits
    • Tedesco et al. 2008; Mims & Olden 2012
results fish traits studies
Results: fish traits studies
  • Taxonomy explains regional / geographic distributions of fishes
  • Traits better explain local habitat type and stability, and regional distribution
  • Hoeinghaus et al. 2006
results fish traits studies1
Results: fish traits studies
  • Difference in fish traits across river basins
    • Result of glaciation: filter
    • Colonizers had opportunistic traits: small body size, brief lifespan, low age maturity, small eggs
    • Mims et al. 2010
    • Jacquemin and Pyron 2011
traits vs taxa
Traits vs. taxa
  • respond similarly to gradients?
    • Predicted by Heino et al. 2013:
    • Traits insensitive to geographical variation
    • Taxa more geographically structured
      • Depends on spatial extent of study
problems with traits
Problems with traits
  • Developmental trophic changes
  • Poorly known taxa; broad family characterizations often incorrect
  • Traits are intercorrelated: not independent
problems with traits1
Problems with traits
  • Data quality of traits varies
    • Fuzzy coding, continuous variables, categories
summary
Summary
  • Functional traits are useful
  • Tend to respond more strongly to environmental gradients than taxonomy
    • Taxonomy is successful at distinguishing large-scale assemblage variation
t raits studies
Traits studies
  • Gayraud et al. 2003
  • Goldstein & Meador 2005
  • Hoeinghaus et al. 2007
  • Frimpong & Angermeier2010
  • Menezes et al. 2010
  • Pyron et al. 2011
  • Jacquemin & Pyron 2011
  • Pease et al. 2012
  • Heino et al. 2013