slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
This file is part of the FS Resources section at: http://www.wilderness.net/fs/ PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
This file is part of the FS Resources section at: http://www.wilderness.net/fs/

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 70

This file is part of the FS Resources section at: http://www.wilderness.net/fs/ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 176 Views
  • Uploaded on

This file is part of the FS Resources section at: http://www.wilderness.net/fs/ This presentation should be reviewed and revised as needed to match the local training objectives and target audience and local images should be inserted where needed.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'This file is part of the FS Resources section at: http://www.wilderness.net/fs/' - chelsi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

This file is part of the FS Resources section at: http://www.wilderness.net/fs/

This presentation should be reviewed and revised as needed to match the local training objectives and target audience and local images should be inserted where needed.

The Wilderness Act training presentations are posted in parts which may be combined or used separately as needed:

History and Purpose of the Wilderness Act

National Wilderness Preservation System

Values and Benefits

Definitions and Management

Other Laws

Stewardship Principles

Court Decisions

FS policy

More Information

slide3

Wilderness Stewardship

Definitions and Management

The Wilderness Act of 1964

what is the definition of wilderness
What is the definition of wilderness?

“Wilderness is a dark and dismal place where all manner of beasts roam around uncooked.”

- anonymous, 18th century

What is your definition of wilderness?

slide5

What is

Wilderness?

The earth and community of life is untrammeled by man

Man is a visitor who does not remain

Area that retains its primeval character and influence

Without permanent habitation

Managed to preserve natural conditions… wildness

slide6

What is

Wilderness?

Affected primarily by the forces of nature

Man’s work is substantially unnoticeable

Outstanding opportunities for solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation

Ecological, historical, scenic, scientific, geological, educational, spiritual values

why do we have to manage wilderness
Why do we have to manage wilderness?

“Draw a line around it and leave it alone.”

- Early views of the need for management

  • Think of Wilderness Management as Wilderness Stewardship
    • It is both:
      • Biocentric (for nature)
      • Anthropocentric (for people)
section 2 c
Section 2 (c)

A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape,

…where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.

Definition of wilderness

section 2 a
Section 2 (a)

… these [lands] shall be administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness,...

section 2 a10
Section 2 (a)

… these [lands] shall be administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness,...

Wilderness stewardship

section 2 a11
Section 2 (a)

… and so as to provide for the protection of these areas, the preservation of their wilderness character,...

Wilderness character ???

section 4 b
Section 4 (b)

… each agency administering any area designated as wilderness shall be responsible for preserving the wilderness character of the area

… and shall so administer such area for such other purposes for which it may have beenestablished as also topreserve its wilderness character

slide13

Wilderness character is more than the sum of its parts

“It is the combination of biophysical, experiential, and symbolic ideals that distinguish wilderness from other lands.*”

* Monitoring Selected Conditions Related to Wilderness Character: A National Framework, USDA-FS, 2005

slide14

Is Wilderness Character defined in the Wilderness Act of 1964?

Section 2c: Definition of Wilderness

FOUR STATUTORY QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER

defining wilderness character
Defining Wilderness Character

The Qualities of Wilderness Character:

Applying to all areas:

  • Undeveloped
  • Untrammeled
  • Natural
  • Outstanding opportunities for solitude or primitive recreation

For each individual area:

5. Unique values of your wilderness area

section 2 c16
Section 2 (c)

An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation ...

Definition of wilderness - undeveloped

section 2 c17
Section 2 (c)

An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation ...

Definition of wilderness - undeveloped

section 2 c18
Section 2 (c)

An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation ...

Generally without structures or the use of motors or mechanical transport devices that increase human ability to occupy or modify the environment

Definition of wilderness

slide19

FOUR STATUTORY QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER

  • “Undeveloped” and “does not occupy and modify”

Wilderness has minimal evidence of modern human occupation or modification

Wilderness setting

Threats to this setting

undeveloped in contrast with those areas where man and his works dominate the landscape

Undeveloped – “…in contrast with those areas where man and his works dominate the landscape...”

section 2 c21
Section 2 (c)

A wilderness, … is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, …

Definition of wilderness - Untrammeled

section 2 c22
Section 2 (c)

A wilderness, … is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, …

Definition of wilderness - Untrammeled

slide23

“The word ‘untrammeled’ is one that came into use in this definition after dissatisfaction with almost every other word that had been suggested.” -Howard ZahniserAuthor of The Wilderness Act

slide26

Trammel

Noun: A net for catching birds or fish; a shackle for making a horse amble

Verb: to catch or hold in or as if in a net; to prevent or impede the free play of

slide27
Untrammeled“Not being subject to human controls and manipulations that hinder the free play of natural forces.” - Howard Zahniser

Untrammeled = Unhindered, Uncontrolled, Un-manipulated

  • Wildness is what sets wilderness apart from other lands that are more developed or controlled.
slide28

Section 2 (c)

“A Wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.”

Natural conditions and processes are essentially unhindered and free from modern human control or manipulation

slide29

MANAGING for the QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER

  • “Untrammeled”

Wilderness is generally unhindered and free from intentional modern human control or manipulation

Threat to this setting

(suppression)

Wilderness setting

section 2 c30
Section 2 (c)

An area of wilderness …which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions…

Definition of wilderness - Natural

section 2 c31
Section 2 (c)

An area of wilderness …which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions…

Definition of wilderness

which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions
“…which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions…”

How should it look ? What is natural ?

slide33
“Nature may not always be as beautiful as a garden but producing gardens is not the aim of the Wilderness Act.”- Federal Judge, 1975
slide34

Section 2 (c)

“… preserve its natural conditions…”

Substantially free from the effects of modern civilization and manipulation by managers which result in unnatural conditions.

Management of wilderness - Natural

slide35

MANAGING for the QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER

  • “Natural”

Wilderness ecological systems are substantially free from the intentional and unintentional effects of modern civilization

Wilderness setting

Threat to this setting

(the weeds, not the trail)

slide36

Section 2 (c)

“…where the earth and its community of life areuntrammeled by man,…”

“… preserve its natural conditions…”

Conflicting definition of wilderness ?

slide37

IMPLICATION:

A DECISION OR ACTION MAY IMPROVE ONE QUALITY WHILE DEGRADING ANOTHER QUALITY

  • Using herbicides to control exotic plants may improve the long term naturalquality, but it degrades the short-term untrammeled quality
slide38

A DECISION OR ACTION MAY IMPROVE ONE QUALITY WHILE DEGRADING ANOTHER QUALITY

EXAMPLE:

  • Planned ignition (prescribed fire)
  • Natural - restores natural conditions
  • Untrammeled – manipulates conditions
slide39

“…which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions…”

  • Goals for achieving naturalness?
  • Steward the natural conditions by not trammeling (hindering, manipulating, controlling) the natural processes
    • Relative naturalness will be the result
  • If necessary, to preserve wilderness character, restorenatural conditions to reverse the adverse effects of human interference or to meet the intent of other laws.
section 2 c40
Section 2 (c)

… has outstanding opportunities for solitudeora primitive and unconfined type of recreation;

Definition of wilderness – Opportunities

slide42

Section 2 (c)

“… outstanding opportunitiesfor solitude ora primitive and unconfined type of recreation .”

  • Biophysical and social settings not degraded by effects that reduce these opportunities (crowding, facilities, resource impacts, restrictions, etc.)

Definition of wilderness – Opportunities

slide43

FOUR STATUTORY QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER

  • “Outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation”

Wilderness provides opportunities for wilderness experiences; remoteness, natural quiet, solitude, freedom, challenge, self-discovery and self-reliance.

Wilderness setting

Crowding Regulations

Potential threats to this setting

slide44

IMPLICATION:

A DECISION OR ACTION MAY IMPROVE ONE QUALITY WHILE DEGRADING ANOTHER QUALITY

  • Building a bridge to reduce site impacts at a stream crossing may improve the naturalquality, and opportunities for primitive and unconfined type of recreation, …

...but the bridge degrades the undeveloped and solitude qualities

slide45

CHALLENGES:

Does a NEW type of recreation activity meet the definition of “a primitive and unconfined type of recreation” ???

Winged Suits

Snow-Kiting

slide46
The FIFTH Quality: Unique qualities of wilderness character can be identified for each wilderness area?
  • Defining the specific qualities of wilderness character helps describe the desired condition and determine management objectives.
  • Helps define the ‘niche’ for each wilderness

Pusch Ridge Wilderness

slide47

Section 2 (c)

“…may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.”

  • The unique values of each area should be identified and must be protected, but always in a wilderness context

Definition and criteria for additions to the wilderness system

what is the primary agency responsibility for stewardship of wilderness
What is the Primary Agency Responsibility for Stewardship of Wilderness?

“…provide for…the preservation of their wilderness character…” Section 2(a)

“…each agency administering any…wilderness shall be responsible for preserving the wilderness character…” Section 4(b)

“…administer…to preserve its wilderness character…” Section 4(b)

the importance of preserving wilderness character
The importance of preserving wilderness character
  • Mandated by law:
    • “…each agency… shall be responsible for preserving the wilderness character of the area…”
  • Criteria for court decisions:
    • 54 District Court
    • 31 Circuit Court

Galiuro Wilderness

section 4 d special provisions
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions

AKA the non-conforming uses

section 4 d special provisions51
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions

Use of aircraft or motorboats

…where these uses have already become established, may be permitted to continue subject to such restrictions as the Secretary … deems desirable

AKA the non-conforming uses

section 4 d special provisions52
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions

such measures may be taken as may be necessary in the control of fire, insects and diseases,subject to such conditions as the Secretary deems desirable.

section 4 d special provisions53
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions

such measures may be taken as may be necessary in the control of fire, insects and diseases, subject to such conditions as the Secretary deems desirable.

section 4 d special provisions54
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions

Fish and wildlife management

  • Nothing in the Act shall be construed as affecting the jurisdiction or responsibilities of the several states with respect to wildlife and fish in the national forests.

Not changed – a shared responsibility

section 4 d special provisions55
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions
  • Mining activity-valid claims
  • Mineral prospecting
  • Water resources and developments (dams and ditches)
  • State water rights
  • Commercial grazing
  • Access to state and private lands
section 4 d special provisions56
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions

Commercial services

  • …may be performed within.. Wilderness… to the extent necessary for activities which are proper for realizing the recreational or other wilderness purposes of the area.
section 4 d special provisions57
Section 4 (d) – Special Provisions

Commercial services

  • …may be performed within.. Wilderness… to the extent necessary for activities which are proper for realizing the recreational or other wilderness purposes of the area.

Assess need and determine capacity

slide58

Section 4 (c) – Prohibited Uses

“Except as specifically provided for in this Act, and subject to existing private rights, there shall be no commercial enterprise and no permanent road within any wilderness area…”

Commercial Enterprise:

Lodges, resorts, restaurants, tourist shops, etc.

section 4 c prohibited uses
Section 4 (c) – Prohibited Uses

- no temporary road

- no use of motor vehicles, motorized equipment or motorboats

- no landing of aircraft

- no form of mechanical transport

- no structure or installation

section 4 c prohibited uses60
Section 4 (c) – Prohibited Uses

EXCEPT

as necessary to meet minimum requirements for the administration of the areafor the purpose of this Act (including measures equired in emergencies involving the health and safety of persons within the area)…

section 4 c prohibited uses61
Section 4 (c) – Prohibited Uses

EXCEPT

as necessary to meet minimum requirements for the administration of the areafor the purpose of this Act

section 2 c62
Section 2 (c)

… generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man’s work substantially unnoticeable;

Definition and criteria for additions to the wilderness system

section 2 c63
Section 2 (c)

… generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man’s work substantially unnoticeable;

Definition and criteria for additions to the wilderness system

slide64

Examples of previous human development

included in wilderness:

  • Logging
  • Mining
  • Grazing
  • Roads
  • Farms and homesteads
  • Cemeteries
  • Dams and water diversion structures
how can this be wilderness
How can this be wilderness?

The law allows for:

  • Special provisions that may allow mining, water developments, commercial grazing, access to private lands?
  • Exceptions for use of motor vehicles, motorized equipment, structures, installations?
section 4 b66
Section 4 (b)

“Except as otherwise provided in this Act, wilderness areas shall be devoted to the public purposes of recreational, scenic, scientific, educational, conservation, and historical use.

The public purposes

section 4 b67
Section 4 (b)

“Except as otherwise provided in this Act, wilderness areas shall be devoted to the public purposes of recreational, scenic, scientific, educational, conservation, and historical use.

The public purposes

public purposes recreational scenic scientific educational conservation and historical use
Public Purposes“recreational, scenic, scientific, educational, conservation, and historical use.”
  • Public lands and uses
  • Public rights and privileges
  • Public involvement and communication
  • Local custom, culture, and tradition
slide69

A Wilderness Stewarsdhip Model

Adapted from: FSM 2320.6

Pristine - Absolute wilderness

Definition of wilderness

Management effort

Wilderness ‘X’ at time of designation

Wilderness Character

Management effort

0

Human Use, Trammeling and Development