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Input & Output: Console. Console – term is left over from days of mainframes and refers to the monitor display and keyboard entry Input from the keyboard (console input) cin >> marked_price ; (Note: input goes INTO the memory storage location defined as marked_price )

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input output console
Input & Output: Console
  • Console – term is left over from days of mainframes and refers to the monitor display and keyboard entry
  • Input from the keyboard (console input)
    • cin >> marked_price ; (Note: input goes INTO the memory storage location defined as marked_price)
  • Output to the monitor screen (console output)
    • cout << “Sales tax: “ << tax << endl; (Note: Output goes OUT OF the memory storage location tax to the monitor screen – along with some literal text and an ‘insert end of line’ indicator)
  • << and >> are ‘operators’ indicating a direction of flow (stream insertion operators where ‘stream’ means a sequence of data)
variables and literals
Variables and Literals

Literal

  • Fixed value, not subject to change during program execution
  • Used to assign values to variables or output fixed content
  • Conform to some standard type such as float, double, char, string, int
  • Examples: 3.1415, “Hello”, 28, ‘Y’

Variable

  • Value can change during execution of the code
  • Has a name defined by the programmer
  • Has a specific ‘type’ defined by the programmer (i.e. int, float, double, char)
  • Has a storage location in memory that is assigned by the computer at the time the program is executed. The programmer refers to this storage location in his/her program using the name he/she used to define it.
  • All variables are represented in the storage location by a sequence of 1’s and 0’s
escape sequences
Escape Sequences

The \ (backslash) character has a special significance. It is used to ‘escape’ or change the meaning of the character that follows it. The combination of the \ and the following character is called an ‘escape sequence’

  • \n Newline (does same as endl)
  • \t Inserts a tab
  • \\ Causes a \ to be printed
  • \’ Causes a ‘ to be printed
  • \” Causes a “ to be printed

Note: Never put a space in the middle of an escape sequence

example using escape sequences
Example: Using Escape Sequences

//This is an example of a program that utilizes the console out object and escape sequences

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int main()

{

cout<< "Some Common Escape Sequences";

cout<< endl;

cout<< endl;

cout<< "Newline\t\t\\n";

cout<< endl;

cout<< "Tab\t\t\\t";

cout<< “\n”;

cout<< "Backslash\t\\\\";

cout<< endl;

cout<< "Single Quote\t\\\'";

cout<< endl;

cout << "Double Quote\t\\\"";

cout<< endl;

return 0;

}

naming variables
Naming Variables
  • Cannot use any of the C++ reserved (key) words (syntax)
  • Should indicate the role of the variable in the program
  • Should follow a naming convention (style)
  • Variable names should be in all lower case with underscore between words (
  • Should be descriptive but moderate in length
  • Names can only start with letter or underscore and may contain only letters, numbers and underscores

Examples:

body_weight_pounds or body_weight_lbs

max_number_suitcases

test_grade1

final_grade_average

data types variable definitions
Data Types & Variable Definitions

Program variables must be defined not only by a name but also by a data type. The type declaration statement determines how the value of the variable is stored. Below are typical storage sizes and ranges for different types.

Integers:

short 2 bytes -32,768 to +32,767

unsigned short 2 bytes 0 to 65,535

int 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647

unsigned int 4 bytes 0 to 4,294,967,295

long 4 bytes -2,147,483,648 to +2, 147,483,647

unsigned long 4 bytes 0 to 4,294,967,295

typical vs guaranteed
Typical vs. Guaranteed

What storage size is guaranteed on all systems?

int is at least as large as short int

long int is as least as large as int

unsigned short is the same size as short

unsigned int is the same size as int

unsigned long is the same size as long

The sizeofspecial operator can be used to determine the storage size on any given computing platform.

floating point real numbers
Floating Point (Real Numbers)

Real numbers (floating point numbers) are stored in a format similar to scientific notation.

Examples:

2,498,230.668 is 2.498231668 x 106 where 2.498231 is called the mantissa and 6 is the exponent

.0034459 is 3.4459 x 10-3 where 3.4459 is the mantissa and -3 is the exponent

For computer storage purposes these numbers would be written as 2498231668E6 and 34459E-3

A designated part of the allocated memory space is used for the mantissa and the rest for the exponent. One bit is used for the sign.

floating point data types
Floating Point Data Types

Below are the data types with storage sizes typically found on PCs.

float 4 bytes 3.4E-38 to 3.4E38

double 8 bytes 1.7E-308 to 1.7E308

long double 8 bytes 1.7E-308 to 1.7E308

Note: Remember the computer actually stores both the mantissa and exponent in binary. Although the exponent being an integer can be stored exactly, the mantissa may not be able to be stored exactly and at some point will be truncated.

Ex. .1 or 1/10 decimal = 0.0001100110011... (binary) where … means the pattern repeats.

char data type
Char Data Type

Characters are internally represented by numbers and thus can be thought of as a type of integer. Most systems use the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) convention for the storage of characters.

Strings are a sequence of characters stored in consecutive memory locations. We will be talking more about this later.

slide11

ASCII characters 0 to 127Code 0 to 31 (and # 127) are non-printing, mostly obsolete control charactersthat affect how text is processed. There are 95 printable characters.To print one, press the ALT key (hold it down) and type the decimal number.

slide12

A popular variation of

an extended ASCII set

strings
Strings

A string is a sequence of characters and is stored using the string ‘class’. You must include a preprocessor directive (#include <string>) if you want to use a string type variable. “”s must be around the literal assigned to a string variable.

#include <string>

string my_first_name,my_last_name;

my_first_name= “Trish”;

my_last_name= “Sumbera”’;

The sequence of char that make up a string is stored in consecutive memory locations and the end is marked with a null (ASCII 0) character.

Note: The ASCII code for the char 0 (zero) is 48. We use \0 to represent

the null character.

Also Note: char literals use single quotes. string literals use double quotes.

‘T’ takes up one byte of memory but “T” requires two bytes.

Why?

bool data type
bool Data Type

bool (boolean) data have values of either ‘true’ or ‘false’

Needless to say this value is represented numerically where true is represented by 1 and false by 0

named constants
Named Constants

Literals that may need to be changed in the future can be given a name.

  • Use ALL_CAPS with words separated by _ (Note: This is a style issue and not part of the C++ language)
  • Value cannot be changed while the program is running
  • Defined using const <data type> <NAME> = <value>;

Examples:

const float PI = 3.1415;

constint MAX_VACATION_HRS = 120;

  • Are stored in a named memory location that is read-only
  • #define preprocessor directive may be seen used in older programs
    • Not stored in memory
    • Text substitution occurs during preprocessor stage
    • No defined data type
binary representation of numbers
Binary Representation of Numbers

As a programmer you should know how the computer stores numerical data in memory.

EVERYTHING is stored using 0’s and 1’s.

Binary representation of numbers is essential to understanding data types and some of the nuances resulting from binary representation.

Let’s look at binary vs. decimal and how integers are stored in memory.