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Adaptive Object Inclusion in AHA!. Paul De Bra Ad Aerts Bart Berden Barend de Lange. Topics. The AHA! Project Adaptive Object Inclusion Stable Presentations Conclusions / Future Work. The AHA! Project. AHA! = Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture

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adaptive object inclusion in aha

Adaptive Object Inclusion in AHA!

Paul De Bra

Ad Aerts

Bart Berden

Barend de Lange

  • The AHA! Project
  • Adaptive Object Inclusion
  • Stable Presentations
  • Conclusions / Future Work
the aha project
The AHA! Project
  • AHA! = Adaptive Hypermedia Architecture
    • Open Source project, Web-based adaptive engine
    • Built on Java Servlet technology, XML and XHTML
    • General-purpose user-model and adaptation rules
    • Data storage (domain, adaptation, user model) using XML files or mySQL database
    • High-level authoring of domain- and adaptation model through Java Applets
    • Compilers from authoring to engine structures
main aha engine features
Main AHA! Engine Features
  • AHA! mainly reacts to page accesses
    • Each resource (page) is associated with a concept
    • The access event triggers rules that update attributes of user model concepts
    • Each attribute update may trigger more rules that update more attributes of more concepts
    • Links in the requested page are annotated based on expressions on attribute values
    • Fragments and objects are conditionally included based on expressions on attribute values
adaptive object inclusion
Adaptive Object Inclusion
  • Reasons for adaptive object inclusion:
    • prerequisite explanation (include when needed to understand concept)
    • comparative or additional explanation (include when user is ready for it)
    • choose between media items (text, audio, image, video)
    • same object may be included in different pages; having separate objects eliminates redundant copies
adaptive object inclusion in aha1
Adaptive Object Inclusion in AHA!
  • Adaptation Rules determine inclusion of objects:
    • “casegroup” works like a “switch” statement in C to decide which object to include
    • the inclusion causes a new access event triggering the adaptation rules of the included object
    • included objects can thus influence how object inclusion and link adaptation works for objects further down on the same page
potential problems with object inclusion
Potential Problems with Object Inclusion
  • When an object is included in several pages or several times on a page:
    • each access to the object triggers adaptation
    • the user may not recognize the adapted object or page when it is revisited
  • When many objects are included on a page:
    • the page is difficult to author (many object tags)
    • it is difficult for an author to remember what the (possible) contents of the page is
stable presentations in aha
Stable Presentations in AHA!
  • Adaptation is less noticeable when it is done once, when the user first sees the object (or page)
    • stable forever (one-time adaptation)
    • stable for one session (adaptation reoccurs in the next session)
    • stable as long as an expression remains true (stable until some threshold is reached)
handling many small fragments
Handling Many Small Fragments
  • AHA! 3.0 is backward compatible with AHA! 2.0
    • conditional inclusion of fragments through “if” statements inside the page
    • all possible variations are visible to the author
    • the “if” statements cause pages not to be in standard xhtml
    • conditionally included fragments do not generate an event (and thus do not generate any user model update)
conclusions future work
Conclusions / Future Work
  • Object inclusion and stable presentations make AHA! a more versatile/powerful as an AHS
  • Using these features effectively is not trivial for authors; we need authoring tools that use high-level structures
    • one such tool is an Interbook to AHA! compiler (but that does not use object inclusion or stable presentations yet because Interbook does not use them)
    • more tools are being developed in the ADAPT project (101144-CP-1-2002-NL-MINERVA-MPP)