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Introduction to XML. Module Road Map. Assignment Road Map. Notice we have linked the conduit directly to the presentation layer. This is normally a bad idea!. Introduction to XML. How do we make all of these diverse technologies work together? Extensible Mark-up Language (XML)

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assignment road map
Assignment Road Map

Notice we have linked the conduit directly to the presentation layer. This is normally a bad idea!

introduction to xml1
Introduction to XML
  • How do we make all of these diverse technologies work together?
  • Extensible Mark-up Language (XML)
  • Origins in SGML (Standard Generalised Mark-up Language)
  • Late 1980 early 90s Tim Berners-Lee working in Switzerland devised the first specification for HTML based on SGML
simple html document
Simple HTML Document
  • Tags mark-up the content…
  • Rendered as…
problems with html
Problems with HTML
  • The tags were defined as part of the language specification
  • Different browsers added new features to the language in order to compete
  • Browser wars
world wide web consortium w3c
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  • Devise standards and software related to the World Wide Web
  • Greater standardisation was applied to HTML leading to XML
applying standards
Applying Standards
  • XML HTML, XHTML, Strict, Transitional
  • We must be good boys and girls
  • Apple, Opera and Mozilla devised an extension to HTML called Web Forms 2.0
  • HTML 5
two faces of the web
Two Faces of the Web
  • HTML 5 – Human Being
  • XML – Systems
  • E.g. Netflix - Facebook
slide11
XML
  • A meta-language - data about data
  • May be used to define other mark-up languages
  • XML may be used in many other non web related contexts (Office Documents)
  • Allows us to split data from presentation
media centre master
Media Centre Master
  • Tool to manage films saved as DivX files
  • Creation of scan folders
  • Communicates with the Internet Movie Database
  • Web service
  • Web page versus web document
tags in xml
Tags in XML
  • XML doesn’t define a large range of tags
  • If we want to create a new tag in XML we don’t need to wait for a new version of the language
  • XML allows us define our own mark-up languages
  • XHTML (eXtensible HyperText Markup Language)
xhtml
XHTML
  • Document Type Definition contains a set of rules that define what are allowable tags in an XHTML file
the xml declaration
The XML Declaration
  • The top line of the file reads as follows...

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" standalone="yes"?>

  • XML Version (1.0 or 1.1 – only interested in 1.0)
  • Encoding – utf-8
encoding
Encoding
  • Everything we see on a computer is internally represented as binary data
  • How do we translate the following? - 46, 41, 44, 45
the root element
The Root Element
  • A tag that encloses all of the data in the file and must not be empty
  • XML file for 28 Days Later has a root element of <Title>
elements
Elements
  • <LocalTitle>28 Days Later</LocalTitle>
  • Opening tag <LocalTitle>
  • Closing tag </LocalTitle>
  • Data 28 Days Later
attributes and values
Attributes and Values
  • Added to elements to include additional data
  • (Modified structure to illustrate attributes and values)
five rules of xml
Five Rules of XML
  • 1. Tag names are case sensitive
  • This is ok...

<LocalTitle>28 Days Later</LocalTitle>

  • This is not...

<LocalTitle>28 Days Later</Localtitle>

  • These are two different tags

<localtitle>28 Days Later</localtitle>

<LocalTitle>28 Days Later</LocalTitle>

five rules of xml1
Five Rules of XML
  • 2. Every opening tag must have a closing tag
  • This is good...

<LocalTitle>28 Days Later</LocalTitle>

  • This is bad...

<LocalTitle>28 Days Later

five rules of xml2
Five Rules of XML
  • 3. A nested tag pair cannot overlap another tag
five rules of xml3
Five Rules of XML
  • 4. Attribute values must appear within quotes
  • Good...

<FilmDetail Title="28 Days Later" IMDBrating="7.6" ProductionYear="2002">

  • Bad...

<FilmDetail Title=28 Days Later IMDBrating=7.6 ProductionYear=2002>

five rules of xml4
Five Rules of XML
  • 5. Every document must have a root element