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VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Respiratory Disease Control. Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University. General introduction. Endemic Pneumonia. App- continual outbreaks, chronic pleuropneumonia Sometimes other bacteria as well Enzootic Pneumonia

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vdpam 445 swine topics respiratory disease control

VDPAM 445Swine TopicsRespiratory Disease Control

Dr. Alex Ramirez

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine

Iowa State University

endemic pneumonia
Endemic Pneumonia
  • App- continual outbreaks, chronic pleuropneumonia
    • Sometimes other bacteria as well
  • Enzootic Pneumonia
    • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
    • Pasteurella multocida
  • Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex
    • All of the above (especially M. hyo)
    • PRRSV
    • SIV
    • Others: PCV2, PRV, H. parasuis, S. suis,
  • Gross pathology: APP versus all others
    • APP & A. suis vs. others
  • Organism identification
    • Culture
    • FA
    • PCR
    • IHC: immunohistochemistry (with histopath)
      • Fixed tissue, easy sample preservation
  • Histopath
    • Prove disease, organism presence is insufficient
  • Serology: serological profiling
    • Timing of infection but not necessarily timing of disease
  • Sampling issues
    • Tissue preservation in formalin
      • Buffered
      • Multiple sites
      • <1cm tissue thickness
    • Number of animals
      • Example on next slide
    • Sick (necropsy) versus healthy (slaughter checks)
diagnostic sampling strategies
Diagnostic Sampling Strategies
  • Small numbers of pigs will result in missed diagnosis
    • PRDC case: 21 pigs submitted for necropsy
    • Pathology/microbiology:
        • No lesions =5 Gastric ulcer = 2
        • PMWS = 5 PRRSV = 2
        • SIV? = 1 APP? = 3 (non-typeable)
        • P. mult. = 2 Bordetella = 2
        • Strep suis = 1 M. hyo = 8
    • Serology: M. hyo+, SIV+, PRRSV (late +)
    • Slaughter check: Low average percent pneumonia, a few pigs severe
diagnostic considerations value of tests
Diagnostic Considerations: Value of Tests
  • Laboratory tests should fit with clinical observations
    • Pigs cough: Pursue rule-outs (M. hyo, influenza)
    • Pigs grow slowly without overt disease - diets/environment?
  • Specific versus non-specific tests
    • Necropsy and slaughter exams (disease severity)
    • Laboratory tests (agent identification)
    • Record analysis (rarely identifies a specific cause)
  • Documenting management activities
    • “Gum shoe” approach
      • One revealing observation is often worth more than 100 serological tests
      • SOP vs. Actual
mycoplasma hyopneumoniae1
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  • Primary cause of enzootic pneumonia
    • Most herds are infected except SPF herds
  • Transmission is via aerosol
    • Air is PCR positive
    • Difficult to prevent between herd spread
  • Disease often manifested in finishing
    • Organism very slow to grow (weeks)
    • A few get infected from sows  spreads slowly through nursery pigs
    • Lateral transmission from older pigs
mycoplasma hyopneumoniae2
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  • Diagnosis
    • Clinical signs: only cough 10 days after challenge
      • Severe sickness with infection of SPF herds?
      • Mild - minimal consequence in otherwise disease free pigs
    • Macroscopic lesions
      • Anterior-ventral consolidation
      • Not specific to M. hyo
mycoplasma hyopneumoniae4
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
  • Diagnosis
    • Histopathology:
      • peribronchiolarlymphocytic cuffing
    • Organism ID
      • FA- need fresh tissue, approx. 50% sensitivity
      • Culture - slow grow, overgrowth by M. hyorhinis
      • PCR - “It’s everywhere”
      • IHC
    • Serology: several ELISA’s available
      • Vaccination will also induce titers that persist for a short time
mycoplasma vaccination
Mycoplasma Vaccination
  • Second most common vaccine used in growing pigs
    • Common in population
    • Potentiator of other respiratory disease
  • Issues
    • Mandatory (?) in herds with continuous flow, multiple rooms within the same building, virulent PRRSV
    • One vs. two dose products
      • Use one dose in “controlled” situations or if labor is a big concern
      • Two doses will almost always be better
      • Start early (3weeks)
      • Product cost is usually equal
      • Many combine with PCV2 vaccination
mycoplasma vaccination1
Mycoplasma Vaccination
  • Maternal antibody interference
    • Probably will not interfere with vaccine induced protection
    • No real reason to vaccinate sows pre-farrow
      • Only vaccinate gilts before entering herd
  • PRRS eradication  Mycoplasma eradication
    • Consider where pigs will be grown and finished
    • May still need to vaccinate pigs
m hyo treatment plan
M. hyo Treatment plan
  • Antibiotics?
    • Now
    • Earlier
    • Routes
      • Water
      • Feed
      • Injectable
  • Control other diseases
  • Vaccination
    • Other groups
    • Timing – watch for PRRS seroconversion
actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app1
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)
  • Cause of contagious pleuropneumonia
  • Transmission by close contact and short distance aerosols
  • Many pigs harbor organism in upper airways
    • Clinical disease occurs with environmental stress in many cases
      • Malfunctioning curtain controller  temperature fluctuation  organism gains entrance to lung  severe (bad), rapidly developing necrotizing and hemorrhagic pneumonia with pleuritis
actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app2
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)
  • Clinical signs
    • Sudden death
    • Sudden onset of rapid, deep breathing
    • Minimal cough (not an airway irritant)
    • Fever initially or if mild-to-moderate; subnormal in severely affected pigs
    • Hemoptosis and blood from nostrils in agonal phase (euthanize if possible)
    • Mortality can reach 10% of barn in one day
    • Pigs quit eating AND DRINKING
actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app3
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)
  • Post-mortem lesions
    • Necrotizing, hemorrhagic, usually multi-focal pneumonia
    • Pleuritis will be present if pig survives for at least 18 hours after challenge
    • Similar lesions can be seen with Actinobacillus suis
    • If APP  mass treatment via injection often indicated; other types of pneumonia treated less aggressively; can’t wait for test results to start therapy
actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae app5
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)
  • Diagnosis
    • Initially: clinical signs and gross pathology
    • Culture: isolation followed by capsular serotyping
      • Some relationship between capsular serotype and virulence: Type 1’s are worst; followed by 5’s
      • USA: 1, 5, 7 and 3 are most common (odd numbers)
      • Europe: 2 and 6 are most common
    • Serology
      • Complement fixation: recent infection
      • ELISA’s: capsule, endotoxin, cross-reactivity problems
      • Hemolysin neutralization: cross-reactions with A. suis
app vaccination
APP Vaccination
  • Most commercial vaccines are bacterins
    • Administer 2X at 2-4 week interval prior to finishing
    • Capsular serotypes must be matched
      • Use autogenous vaccines if:
        • Commercial vaccines don’t contain the correct serotype
        • May have within serotype heterogeneity
    • Marginally effective: lack ApX toxins which are the main virulence factors for causing disease
    • Side effect potential:
      • Injection site reactions
      • Fever, off-feed, reduced daily gain
app vaccination1
APP Vaccination
  • Newer vaccines
    • Capsular deficient mutant (MLV): BINOBL
      • Given IM
      • Frozen product: order, shipped on dry ice, use immediately
      • Limited replication at injection site
      • Sufficient production of ApX toxins to induce a protective immune response
    • Riboflavin deficient mutant
      • Not commercially available
      • Knock out riboflavin synthetase
      • Add riboflavin to organism and inject IM
app treatment plan
APP Treatment Plan
  • Antibiotics
    • YES!! ASAP
      • Water
      • Feed
    • Duration of treatment
  • Ventilation
  • Vaccination ?
  • Different source of pigs
actinobacillus suis1
Actinobacillus suis
  • Will behave like APP but less severe and short term
  • Problem with “healthier” herds
  • Generalized septicemia like H. parasuis, erysipelas
  • Produces Type I hemolysin
  • No commercial vaccines available
  • Autogenous vaccines used in refractory cases
a suis treatment plan
A. suis Treatment Plan
  • Antibiotics
    • APP vs A. suis need immediate action
    • Sources
      • Injectable
      • Water
      • Feed ???
  • Correct diagnosis is critical
  • Vaccination with autogenous??
pasteurella multocida pneumonia
Pasteurella multocida Pneumonia
  • Not a primary cause of pneumonia
    • Experimental infection only with active M. hyo infection present
    • “Fuzzy thinking”: not important because secondary pathogen but primary causes are nearly always present!!
      • Medication of pigs with non-App pneumonia is mostly directed at P. multocida
        • Acute swine influenza outbreaks
        • Enzootic pneumonia or PRDC
        • Environmental mishaps
pasteurella multocida pneumonia1
Pasteurella multocida Pneumonia
  • Little known about pathogenesis
    • Studies just beginning
    • Generally Type A, non-AR toxin producing
    • Normal inhabitant of upper airways
  • Can cause pleuritis
  • Diagnosis
    • Culture and sensitivity
    • Sort out primary causes
p multocida treatment plan
P. multocida Treatment Plan
  • Antibiotics
    • Injectable
    • Water
    • Feed
  • Environment – Ventilation
  • Address other diseases
    • PRRS
    • Mycoplasma
    • Etc.
atrophic rhinitis
Atrophic Rhinitis
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica
    • Causes atrophic rhinitis
    • Enables P. multocida to colonize nasal epithelium
  • Pasteurella multocida
    • Causes progressive atrophic rhinitis
    • Produces AR toxin (dermatonecrotoxin)
      • Highly potent: inject small quantity  turbinate atrophy
    • Mainly capsular Type D but also Type A
atrophic rhinitis1
Atrophic Rhinitis
  • Clinical signs
    • Deviated snout: side ways or pushed up
    • Tear staining at medial canthus
    • Sneezing
    • Bleeding from nostrils
  • Lesions
    • Turbinate atrophy: primarily ventral scroll of ventral turbinate
    • Septal deviation
atrophic rhinitis3
Atrophic Rhinitis
  • Severity influenced by:
    • Air quality and environment; especially in nurseries
    • Genetics
      • Yorkshires more susceptible to developing severe lesions
    • Age of sow herd: immunity of dams
      • Colostral antibody levels
      • Level of shedding  vertical transmission
      • Age at infection
    • Weaning age: <14 days eliminates vertical transmission
atrophic rhinitis4
Atrophic Rhinitis
  • Stepwise approach
    • Sow vaccination pre-farrowing
      • Gilts pre-breeding is always recommended
    • LA200 (200 mg/ml oxytetracycline) to piglets
      • 15 mg/# dose
      • 1, 7, 14, 21 days or 1, 7-10, weaning
    • Naxcel (2 mg/# dose) instead of LA200
      • No benefit against Bordetella bronchiseptica
    • Vaccinate pigs
      • Two doses: 7 days and weaning
      • One dose: weaning
ar treatment plan
AR Treatment Plan
  • Antibiotics
    • Water
    • Feed
    • Injectable
  • Prevention
    • Antibiotics
    • Vaccination
  • Environment
pseudorabies virus
Pseudorabies Virus
  • Eradicated from the USA commercial herds in late 2003 to early 2004
  • Respiratory disease in any age pigs in addition to CNS signs in neonates and reproductive disease in sows
  • Occasional necrotic rhinitis  crusty nose and nasal discharge
  • Important rule-out (along with SIV and PRRS) for sow herd off-feed
    • Will have fever
prv vaccination
PRV Vaccination
  • Vaccines were highly effective
  • Regulatory based vaccination in Stage II areas
    • Vaccinated sow herd 4 times per year- IM
    • Vaccinated pigs once IM by 12 weeks of age
  • In herds with active infections
    • Vaccinated pigs at birth intra-nasally
      • Used vaccines that were approved for IN use, must replicate in the nasal epithelium to be effective
    • Vaccinated pigs twice IM
  • Vaccine reduced shedding in individual pigs
    • Can stop shedding on a population basis
prv eradication
PRV Eradication
  • Blanket vaccination to reduce/eliminate shedding and transmission
  • Improve internal biosecurity
    • AIAO production
    • People, equipment movement
  • Improve external biosecurity
    • Hog truck sanitation
  • Monitor closely via serology to determine where failure (active infection) is occurring
other viruses1
Other Viruses
  • PRCV
    • Mild respiratory disease in young pigs
    • Natural deletion mutant of TGE virus
      • Can’t attach to intestinal epithelium
    • Significance ?????
      • Test cross reacts with TGE
  • Inclusion body rhinitis
    • Porcine cytomegalovirus
    • Common disease in early nursery pigs
    • High pitched sneezing
    • Minimal clinical impact if no other problems
    • Severely affected will develop necrotic rhinitis
other bacteria1
Other bacteria
  • Will be discussed in other sections
  • Salmonella cholerasuis
    • Interstitial pneumonia – Wet lung
    • Septicemia – purple pigs
    • +/- diarrhea
  • Steptococcus suis
    • Cranioventral consolidation
  • Haemophilus parasuis
swine influenza virus siv
Swine Influenza Virus (SIV)
  • Type A influenza virus
  • H1N1: traditional strain in US
  • H3N2: new strain in US 1998
    • Present in Europe for many years
    • Some evidence for presence in US before
    • Spread throughout country in 2-3 years
  • H1N2: Detected in Indiana 1999
    • Combination of H1N1 and H3N2
  • Others: Exposure to water fowl  outbreak limited to a one or a few herds
swine influenza virus siv1
Swine Influenza Virus (SIV)
  • Clinical signs
    • Short term disease: <4-7 days
    • Fever: variable
    • Respiratory signs: 1-2 days after challenge
      • Increased rate
      • “Thumps”: abdominal breathing
      • “Wet Cough”: minimal with pure infection
  • Gross lesions
    • Look like M. hyo
siv vaccination
SIV Vaccination
  • Strains: H1N1 (traditional), H3N2 (new)
  • Sow herd vaccination: common, concerns?
  • Pig vaccination
    • Two doses recommended, often one dose given
    • Relatively high cost
    • Multivalent vaccines and/or autogenous
    • Role of maternal antibody interference
      • Vaccinate sows pre-farrowing  protective titers until 12 weeks of age
      • MDA’s may interfere until 8-10 weeks of age  small time frame to vaccinate
    • Original antigenic sin
circovirus pcv2 pcvad

Circovirus(PCV2 & PCVAD)

See Dr. Baker’s Lecture

porcine circovirus type ii
Porcine Circovirus Type II
  • Type I: cause of infectious congenital tremors?; porcine cell line contaminant
  • Type II: Cause of PCVAD (Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease); old name = PMWS (post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome)
    • Depletion of germinal centers in lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches are characteristic lesions
      • Much virus located in these tissues
      • Virus also present in normal pigs and tissues
      • Lesions like PRRS
    • Disease in US: PRRS associated, mild, older pigs
    • Disease in Europe: devastating, younger animals
  • Small DNA virus none-enveloped
    • Hard to disinfect
  • Present in most pigs
    • Exposure is VERY common
    • Negative herds ???
  • Concern with present case definition (PMWS/PCVAD)
    • Wasting
    • Lymphoid depletion
    • PCV2
  • Excellent web site  www.pcv2.org
  • Just on the market in 2006
  • In Europe have had a vaccine from Merial but for sows only!
  • ISU involved in development of one vaccine (chimeric with Fort Dodge)
  • Results?
    • So far looking VERY PROMISSING!
PCVAD is usually seen in 4-10 week old pigs in Canada and Europe

PCVAD is typically seen in the 10-20 week old pigs in the US

-Morbidity 2-25%

-Mortality 1-10%

Courtesy Dr. J. Harding

Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome (PDNS)

Etiology unknown




P. multocida

Streptococcus sp.

PCV2 coinfections in 484 U.S. field cases: ISU-VDL









Number of Cases














PCV2 Alone

PCV2+M. hyo.

PCV2+ Others


PCV2+SIV +M.hyo.


PCV2+PRRSV +M.hyo.

PCV2+Bacterial pneumonia

PCV2+Bacterial septicemia

Rarely see PCV2 singular infection

pcv2 treatment plan
PCV2 Treatment Plan
  • Vaccination
    • Earlier the better
  • Work on co-infections!
  • I would like to recognize others for their significant contributions to this presentation:
    • Dr. Brad Thacker
    • Dr. Locke Karriker
    • Dr. Pat Halbur