Environmental Management & Sustainable Development. Topics covered: Pressure on scarce resources Causes and effects of environmental degradation Deforestation Desertification Pollutions Acid Rain Global Warming Different approaches to managing resources and environments.
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Environmental Management& Sustainable Development • Topics covered: • Pressure on scarce resources • Causes and effects of environmental degradation • Deforestation • Desertification • Pollutions • Acid Rain • Global Warming • Different approaches to managing resources and environments
Pressure on Scarce Resources Environmental degradation • refers to the destruction of the physical environment due to human activities.
Factors responsible for Environmental Degradation 1) Social factors • Growth of world’s population • especially in developing countries • Growth of squatter settlements • Increasing affluence • More demand for goods, more resources extracted
OverpopulationThe earth's carrying capacity is under increasing stress from its sheer number of inhabitants. Nearly eighty million people are added to the world population every year, putting additional stresses on our planet. By 2025, the world population, at current rates, will elevate to 8.6 billion with the largest impact felt in the urban centers of developing countries. The combined pressures of population growth and massive poverty will weigh heavily on our stewardship potential.
Factors responsible for Environmental Degradation 2) Economic Factors • Economic development leads to increase amount of resources used • Increase mining and logging activities DeforestationHow do you value a forest? Think of the things that are provided by forests: oxygen, shelter, shade, soil nutrients, wildlife habitat, anti-erosion barriers, wind breaks, timber for construction, fuel for heating and cooking, carbon-dioxide sinks, not to mention beauty. Rainforest destruction is currently estimated at 78 million acres per year - an area larger than Poland. That translates to about 214,000 acres per day or an area larger than New York City. Learning to respect the value of these vital forest resources is an important life lesson for future generations
Factors responsible for Environmental Degradation 3) Technological Factors • Modern day comforts that we enjoy • Harnessing fossil fuels to generate electricity and power vehicles • What is the impact? • Large amounts of fossil fuels burnt -> air pollution
Factors responsible for Environmental Degradation 4) Political Factors • Govts enforce laws to protect the environment • Large corporations are able to influence govt decisions. For eg, an MNC may threaten to pull out of a country if it is prevented from logging NOT IN MY BACKYARD – ‘NIMBY’ attitude An attitude many people have towards the environment. They do not care how much resource needs are being met as long as they do not suffer the effects (p195)
CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATIONDeforestationDesertificationPollutionAcid RainGlobal Warming
Impact of Environmental Degradation Global climate change Decreased food production Reduced biological diversity Health problems Damaged property Economic costs
Global climate change • Rise in sea water level – flooding in low-lying coastal areas • rise in temperature – increase in evaporation • wet areas – more rain (El Nino effect) • drier areas - droughts
Decreased food production • affect growth of important crops such as rice, wheat, corn • higher temp encourage the growth of weeds and pests – decreased in food production • desertification and deforestation decreases the amount of arable land • crop yields cannot keep up with population growth, famine and death could result
Reduced biological diversity • changes in temperature, human actions such as deforestation – plants and animals die – may lead to extinction • plants with valuable medicinal properties lost before they are discovered
Health problems • in developing countries, poor sanitary conditions, contaminated water sources affects health • emissions from industries and vehicles – air pollution - asthma • Increased ultraviolet rays increases incidences of skin cancer, eye cataract and damage to plant life
Damaged property • Action of acid rain: • Leaching of minerals • Damage to vegetation • Impact on wildlife • Damage to buildings • Rise in sea level - low-lying coastal cities affected
Economic costs • Money has to be spent to solve these environmental problems • Money can be used to develop the country and ironically at the expense of the environment
Environmental Management • is about protecting and caring for the environment Our Legacy"legacy - something transmitted by or received from an ancestor or predecessor or from the past "The whole world is in our hands--the outcome and existence of life will be determined by our actions. This is your opportunity to make the Earth a better place. Are we up to the challenge? What legacy will we pass on to our children?
Environmental Management • Refers to the use of natural resources at a level which does not go beyond the sustainable level • This will ensure that our future generations are able to survive in a world where the physical environment is not struggling to accommodate our wants and needs • It involves the careful monitoring and management of waste discharge so that it does not result in the destruction of the environment • FOUR approaches to environmental management
Sustainable development • Development that meet the needs of the people without compromising the ability of future generations • For eg, the ecotourism project in Amazon Basin, Brazil.
Stewardship • An attitude that recognizes that we do not own Earth, but are responsible for looking after it. • From the use of fish resources to how schools and offices are organised and run • Governments or international ‘watchdog’ organisations are responsible
Conservation • involves careful use and management of the Earth’s resources, thereby protecting it from destructive influences • resource conservation • 3Rs – reduce, reuse and recycle • demand reduction • Reduce demand for wood products • Reduce demand for things that are powered by fossil fuels • Alternative sources of energy such as nuclear power • nature conservation • at global level, international organisations such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the World Wide Fund for Nature are actively involved in saving the environment • Strict conservation to protect plant and animal species • Eg Taman Negara National park
Conservation Managing S’pore’s Environment • eg. S’pore Green Plan (SGP) – balancing conservation with development • SGP was introduced in 1992 to maintain high standard of living while developing an environmenally conscious population • Govt set aside 5% of the land area to be preserved as nature reserves. Eg. BTNR and SBNR • SGP provides policies for waste management • To minimise waste production through public education to promote recycling • SGP is continually being reviewed
The need to Conserve • As earth is our only home, it is important that we protect and care for it. • The condition of the Earth that the net generation will inherit depends on how we care for it today. • To do so, environmental conservation needs to be practiced. • Efforts have been made to conserve: • 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle)
Environmental Conservation Case Study: Singapore • Singapore has earned the distinction of being a ‘Clean and Green City’ • Successfully combined the beauty of nature with urban landscape. • It is the result of careful environmental conservation
Why is there a Need for Singapore to Conserve the Environment? • Lack of natural resources • Singapore has very few natural resources and none of them are in abundance • We must buy whatever we need from other countries • Rising pollution levels • Singapore has a growing population, and numerous expanding businesses and industries • They have contributed to an increase in waste production and demand for energy • These have resulted in a rise in pollution levels
Why is there a Need for Singapore to Conserve the Environment? • Need to preserve our natural heritage • Singapore’s natural heritage includes tropical rainforests and mangrove forests that contain a wide variety of plant and animal life • In the midst of developing our economy, we must bear in mind the protection and preservation of these areas • Need to preserve our natural heritage (cont’d) • Our natural heritage can be preserved in nature reserves such as the Sungei Buloh Nature Park, home to at least 126 species of birds
Why is there a Need for Singapore to Conserve the Environment? • In support of internationalplans for environmentalconservation • As a responsible nation, we are actively involved in international plans to conserve the environment
The Singapore Green Plan • The Singapore Green Plan (SGP) is a plan for helping Singapore become a city with high standards of public health, which is pleasant to live in and where the population cares for the environment • Presented at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro • At the summit, more than 100 countries committed themselves to ensuring minimal damage to the environment in the process of developing their countries.
The Singapore Green Plan • There are various action programmes in the SGP • Environmental education • Involves educating the public about environmental issues • For example, students are made aware through subjects such as Geography, and Civic and Moral Education in schools. They are also encouraged to participate in activities to save water and energy • Having exhibitions and organising annual ‘Clean and Green Week’ to encourage the public to play an active role in environmental protection
The Singapore Green Plan • Environmental education (cont’d) • Informing public about environmental-friendly products and encouraging manufacturers to produce these products • Having the ‘Green Label’ Scheme • Resource conservation • Concerns the reduction in the use of energy. Done through the use of rewards and penalties • Also aims to reduce the amount of land use for waste disposal
The Singapore Green Plan • Clean technologies • Aims to reduce air pollution through the use of cleaner fuels such as natural gas to generate electricity, making more efficient use of our transport system and promoting cleaner industries • Aims to pollution caused by energy use and encourages the use of cleaner modes of transport, such as the MRT and bicycles
The Singapore Green Plan • Environmental technology • Purpose is to develop Singapore into a centre for environmental technology • Hopes to share Singapore’s knowledge, skills and experience in achieving a clean and green city with neighbouring countries • Aims to increase Singapore’s knowledge and skills in taking care of the environment by encouraging foreign environment-related companies to set up offices here
The Singapore Green Plan • Nature conservation • Provides for 5% of the total land area in Singapore to be set aside for nature reserves • The reserves allow us to enjoy nature and provide us with a form of recreation
The Singapore Green Plan • Noise management • Increased number of vehicles and expanding industries are two factors contributing to noise levels in Singapore • Noise levels are currently tolerable • To control noise levels, guidelines are set on the level of noise permissible • There are also recommendations for the use of quieter materials such as noise absorbing materials for buildings and roads
Acknowledgments • www.city.guintewest.om.ca/…/conservation.htm