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The French Revolution. I. The Old Order. French Society Divided First Estate – Catholic clergy (1% of the pop.) Second Estate – Nobles (2% of the pop.) Third Estate – bourgeoisie (97% of the pop.) Growing Unrest Third Estate called for change Nobles resented the king’s absolute power

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i the old order
I. The Old Order
  • French Society Divided
    • First Estate – Catholic clergy (1% of the pop.)
    • Second Estate – Nobles (2% of the pop.)
    • Third Estate – bourgeoisie (97% of the pop.)
  • Growing Unrest
    • Third Estate called for change
    • Nobles resented the king’s absolute power
    • Financial problems (higher prices/fees)
      • Banks would not lend more money to the crown
    • Crop failures raised prices even more
i the old order continued
I. The Old Order (continued)
  • Calling the Estates Together
    • Louis XVI was forced to call the Estates-General
      • Had not met since 1614
    • Nobles wanted to gain control of the government
    • Third Estate wanted a joint meeting
      • formed the National Assembly and promised to draft a Constitution (Tennis Court Oath)
  • A Call to Revolt
    • Third Estate wanted social/representative equality
    • The Fall of Bastille
    • Spreading violence against upper classes
ii constitutional government
II. Constitutional Government
  • End of the Old Order
    • Nobles gave up feudal dues and agreed that all males could serve in govt., military, church office
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen
      • French Constitution (August of 1789)
      • All people are equal before the law
      • Freedom of speech, religion, and press
    • King Louis XVI forced to return to Paris
  • A New France
    • The Assembly sold off church land to pay debt
    • The Church was placed under govt. control
    • Constitution of 1791 – one-house assembly
      • Most moderates were happy with the Constitution results
      • Left, center, right wing ideas
      • Unrest begins
iii the decline of monarchy
III. The Decline of Monarchy
  • Louis decided to flee to Austria, but was discovered and arrested
  • Louis was forced to accept the limited monarchy proposed by the Natl. Assembly
  • French Revolutionists declared war on Austria
  • The “September Massacres” – killing of nobles
iv dawn of a new era
IV. Dawn of a New Era
  • The French Republic
    • The Natl. Convention met from 1792-1795
    • Political power placed in the legislature
  • Death of Louis XVI (Jan. 1793)
    • Was beheaded for conspiracy against liberty
    • No turning back, the republic would remain
    • Jacobins (sans-culottes) and Girondists
  • Spreading the Revolution
    • Leaders were determined to overthrow all royalty
    • Bring liberty, equality, and fraternity to all
    • Strong opposition from their enemies
    • Conscription was implemented (men 18-45)
factions in the new government
Factions in the New Government
  • The Mountain (Jacobins) – most radical; support came from middle and lower classes
  • Girondins – moderates; support came from provinces and those who resented the Paris mob
  • The Plain – swing voters; originally supported the Girondins, but later changed to the Mountain
  • Radical Leaders
    • Jean-Paul Marat – advocated violence, leader of the sans culottes (considered the most radical)
    • Georges-Jacques Danton –came to be known as the “compromiser” (opposed Revolutions excesses)
    • Maximilien Robespierre – became more radical as the Revolution progressed (led the National Convention)
quotes maximilien robespierre
Quotes– Maximilien Robespierre
  • Any law which violates the inalienable rights of man is essentially unjust and tyrannical; it is not a law at all.
  • Pity is treason.
  • The secret of freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret of tyranny is in keeping them ignorant.
  • To punish the oppressors of humanity is clemency; to forgive them is cruelty.
  • The king must die so that the country can live.
iv dawn of a new era cont
IV. Dawn of a New Era (cont.)
  • The Reign of Terror (July, 1793 – July, 1794)
    • Those suspected of treason were hunted down and punished (often times the victims were innocent)
    • 85% of the 40,000 were commoners
    • The Committee of Public Safety & Robespierre
    • Church was turned into a “temple of reason”
    • By mid 1794, many favored a restoration of monarchy
  • The Directory (1795 – 1799)
    • 1795: the Convention wrote a new constitution
    • Executive council of 5 directors was set in place
    • Used the army to put down uprisings by both the royalists and radicals
    • Ineptness and financial difficulty led to the end of the Directory
v napoleon takes over
V. Napoleon Takes Over
  • Had become a military hero while protecting the Directory (1795, age 26)
  • Was promoted to general, gained command of French forces in Prussia
  • Napoleon defeated the Austrians and forced them to relinquish most of northern Italy
  • Returned to Paris (from Egypt) in 1799 and joined revolutionary leaders in a coup d’état
  • Established a dictatorship; concentrated power
  • Replaced elected officials with men he appointed
  • Created the Bank of France; required all to pay taxes
    • Gradually brought inflation and high prices under control
    • Approved by the popular vote (plebiscite)
vi napoleon builds an empire
VI. Napoleon Builds an Empire
  • Napoleonic Code: clear and consistent laws
    • Placed the state above the individual; allowed censorship
  • The Concordat of 1801: recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France
  • Treaty of Amiens (1802):
    • Between Great Britain and France
  • Battle of Trafalgar: an attempt to invade England
    • Admiral Lord Nelson defeated the French Navy
  • Economic Blockades:
    • Ordered all European nations to stop trade with Britain
    • Britain proclaimed all ships must first port in G.B.
    • French Economy worsened
vii downfall of the empire
VII. Downfall of the Empire
  • Confederation of the Rhine – German States
  • Spaniards and Wellington (Wesley)
    • 1812: Spain overthrew French occupiers with the help of the English
  • Failed invasion of Russia – harsh winter
    • 400,000 of 600,000 French soldiers died
  • Napoleon forced into exile (Elba)
    • King Louis XVIII was restored to the throne
  • Hundred Days (March – June, 1815)
    • Napoleon’s return was met with both acceptance and opposition
    • Was defeated at Waterloo by Wellington
peace in europe
Peace in Europe
  • Congress of Vienna
    • Compensation, Legitimacy, and balance of power
    • Redrawing maps (France relinquished most)
    • Restoring Monarchies (divine right was necessary)
    • Buffer States – neutral territories around French territories
  • Changing Forces
    • Reactionaries: opposed change (traditional)
    • Liberalism: accepted new ideas (change)
    • Alliances: representatives were to meet regularly
  • Concert of Europe
    • Two alliances met regularly
    • Helped avoid major European conflicts