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Professor M.Iqbal Parker University of Cape Town PowerPoint Presentation
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Professor M.Iqbal Parker University of Cape Town - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Professor M.Iqbal Parker University of Cape Town

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  1. Genetically Modified Organisms(GMO) A Scientific PerspectivePresentation to Portfolio Committee on Agriculture and Land Affairs 15th November, 2005 Professor M.Iqbal ParkerUniversity of Cape Town

  2. What is Biotechnology? • Two definitions General Definition “Biotechnology is a body of techniques that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.”

  3. 1st Generation Biotechnology • Insulin • Growth Hormones • Cheese Production • Beer Production • Many Others

  4. 3rd Generation Biotechnology Biotechnology is a set of technologies including, but not confined to, tissue culture and recombinant DNA techniques, bioinformatics and genomics, proteomics and structural biology, and all other techniques employed for the genetic modification of living organisms, used to exploit and modify living organisms so as to produce new intellectual property, tools, goods, products and services.

  5. 3rd Generation Biotechnology • Hormones - Insulin • Vaccines - Tb • HIV/AIDS • Malaria • Others

  6. Policy and Legislative Reforms • Ethical Issues • Public Understanding of Biotechnology

  7. The Role of Agriculture in Africa • 40% of the harvest may be lost due to post- harvest damage • Population will double by 2025 to 1.5 billion • Most African countries depend on agriculture for foreign currency earnings

  8. Projected cereal yield in 2025

  9. Particle Gun / Biolistics Chromosome Nucleus Gold particles and DNA Plant Cell

  10. Biolistic Gene Gun

  11. Bombarded cells produce callus tissue

  12. Callus tissue produces shoots and roots and transgenic plants

  13. UNIDO: Biotechnology Priorities in Africa • Virus resistant African crops eg. Maize streak virus • Parasitic weed resistance eg. Striga • Bt maize  African varieties • Decrease mycotoxin levels eg. Bt maize • Drought tolerant African crops

  14. Agricultural biotechnology research in Southern Africa • Virus resistance

  15. Maize streak virus is endemic in Africa causing huge economic losses to commercial and small scale farmers

  16. Control and transgenic MSV resistant plants

  17. Healthy Cassava Virus-infected Cassava

  18. MSV and Africa Cassava Mosaic VirusResistance Strategies • Most plant viruses = RNA  coat proteinR • MSV and ACMV = DNA viruses CP   infection • Virus Replication associated protein  replication initiation as multimers • Mutant, truncated Rep  inhibition virus replication

  19. Focus Areas • Human Health • Vaccines • Biopharmaceutical production • Food security • Plant production • Animal health • Sustainable industrial development