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A United Europe? A Common Heritage?

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A United Europe? A Common Heritage?. The Legacy of Antiquity. Classical Greece – 600 to 337 BC. LINK. LINK 2. independent ‘city-states’ (‘polis’) grew up surrounding mountains provided protection they built encircling walls and a fort (‘acropolis’) was built on a high place inside

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Classical Greece – 600 to 337 BC



independent ‘city-states’ (‘polis’) grew up

surrounding mountains provided protection

they built encircling walls and a fort (‘acropolis’) was built on a high place inside

Athens & Sparta were the two most important of many

each had own customs, laws & forms of government

they tended to expand towards Black Sea & Africa

they were very competitive with each other

they fought hard for freedom, especially against the Persians

they were traders, sailors & adventurers

also philosophers: influenced many faraway cultures

built philosophies based on observation, reason & discussion


Classical Greece – 600 to 337 BC

(the importance of the

Battle of Marathon)

A biography ofAlexander the Great

they triumphed at Battles of Marathon & Salamis around 480BC

from 431 they spent over 25 years fighting each other in the Peloponnesian War

Sparta feared the growth of Athenian power, so the city-states never became a united country

city-states united to fight off the Persians

disunity resulted in invasion by Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great They gave us language, architecture, philosophy and democracy …..

More photos

of Ancient Greece

The Elgin


The Parthenon one / two / three


sons of freemen went to school

  • girls were taught weaving & household skills by mothers
  • at 6 or 7, boys learned reading, writing, music, dancing & athletics
  • they wrote on wax tablets, using a stick called a ‘stylus’

a new Greek colony is established

  • Inside the city wall will be a marketplace, temples, law courts, houses, workshops and council chambers


The Founding of Rome - 753 to 509 BC




legend has it that Rome was founded by local tribespeople who camped on Rome's 7 hills

the people were Sabines and Latins; Romulus was their first King

they were influenced by their neighbours the Etruscans and traders from Greece & Carthage

the Etruscans, from Etruria, lived in city-states emerging around 800 BC

they were farmers, metalworkers, seafarers & traders, and liked music, games & gambling

they were greatly influenced by the Greeks and worshipped Greek Gods


The Founding of Rome - 753 to 509 BC


early Rome was ruled by Kings, who formed armies to defend Rome

the kings had disputes with the patricians, the leading families

the patricians were more representative of a changing, more urbanised Rome

they eventually overthrew the monarchy in 509 BC, leading to the Republic

this was the first republic in the world


The Roman Republic – 509 to 27 BC


Rome was run in the 5th century BC by ‘patricians’ (lords, the ruling class)

there was a struggle between Patricians and Plebians (ordinary people)

this led to the writing of a legal code and the Roman Republic

Rome embarked on wars that led to control of all the Italian peninsular

Rome clashed with Carthage over trade in the Mediterranean, leading to Punic Wars lasting 60 years

Rome established new cities, organisation and prosperity, giving conquered peoples Roman citizenship if they cooperated

by 44 BC they ruled France, Spain, Europe south of the Danube, Anatolia & Northern Africa


The Roman Empire – built on military power

the sad story of

Hannibal & Carthage




The Roman Empire – 27 BC to 475 AD



in 100 BC, friction arose between patricians and plebians again

power struggles between generals led to civil war

in 44 BC, Julius Caesar became Emperor for Life, but alarmed Republicans assassinated him, and the Republic collapsed

Romans chose dictatorship to chaos, and Octavian gradually took control

under him, trade extended as far as East Africa, India & China

the Empire expanded and built roads, towns and cities

Emperors relied more on the army than on the people

most Emperors chose their successors; some were deposed by soldiers

from 100 AD, Rome was ruled by strong Emperors: Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius & Marcus Aurelius

by 117 AD, the Empire had grown too large; soldiers could no longer be paid with booty, slaves and land taken from those conquered

the last conquests were in Britain, Syria, Palestine & Egypt; most conquered people adapted to Roman life

the romans great builders of antiquity

The Romansgreat builders of antiquity

The Romans were master bridge- builders, not only for transport of people and goods, but also for water. They built magnificent aquaducts all over theirEmpire, and some arestill in use today.

Hadrian's Wall between

Scotland & England

the romans great builders of antiquity famous monuments

The Romansgreat builders of antiquityfamous monuments

  • fast communications, meaning good roads, were one of the Romans’ greatest assets in the conquest and control of their Empire
  • most of their roads were straight; many of the routes they followed can still be seen to this day

The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

The Roman Empire at its height under Trajan, 337 ad


The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

The Importance of Latin

  • Latin brought to Italy about 1000 BC by Indo-European immigrants from Northern Europe. As people in Latium developed into organized community, city of Rome in, according to legend, 753 BC
  • Latin quickly spread over much of Italy, in direct correlation to Roman conquests
  • with foundation of Roman Empire, large portion of western world came to speak various forms of Latin or combine it with own tongues
  • "classical" Latin developed in city of Rome and environs; a spoken vernacular form of Latin was carried by Roman army to all Roman provinces
  • Latin thus superceded pre-Roman dialects of Italy, Gaul and Spain
  • some expressions of the original languages remained and, once mixed with the spoken Latin, gave birth to new languages known as the Romance languages
  • only the deeply rooted Greek language resisted Latin domination and continued to be spoken in its original form

The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

The Importance of Latin

  • Latin also survived fall of Roman Empire; as centuries passed it continued to be an international language of educated and social elite, accompanying the modified tongues of the common people
  • Latin often an international Lingua Franca between different peoples; use among educated people survived for centuries
  • the sole language of the Catholic Church was Latin
  • all scholarly, historical, or scientific work was written in it up to end of Renaissance
  • when Middle Ages ended, the west experienced a cultural Renaissance; interest in Antiquity & classical Latin as a means of artistic and literary expression grew
  • during and after this period of rebirth, forms of Latin even transplanted to the Western Hemisphere; today, the people of Mexico, Central America, and South America are called Latins or latinos

The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

The Importance of Latin

  • Latin is the bedrock of Western European languages
  • the Romance languages of Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, and Romania developed from a hybrid version of spoken Latin and native tongues
  • each also influenced in turn by other tongues, such as Slavic, Norse and many Germanic dialects
  • of these modern languages, Romanian, not Italian, remains the closest living language to the original
  • without Latin, very few of today's European languages would be possible or recognizable in their current forms

The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

The Latin Language

amo I love

amas you love

amat he/she loves

amamus we love

amatis you love

amant they love

insula nominative (subject)

insula you love

insulam accusative (object)

insulae genitive

insulae dative

insula ablative

AMARE = to love

INSULA = an island

  • an amateur photographer
  • (= lover of photography)
  • an amorous look …
  • I’m not enamoured of …
  • an example of insular thought
  • I live on a peninsular. (pen = almost)
  • The machine is poorly insulated.

The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

The Latin Language – noun inflections

insula nominative (subject) Insula bella est.

insula you love O insula, te amo

insulam accusative (object) Insulam amo

insulae genitive Insulae dicit.

insulae dative Historiam insulae amo

insula ablative Puer insulae est.

INSULA = an island




Some latin phrases


The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

Roman monuments can be found in most parts of Western Europe. They are very familiar to all Europeans, and a permanent reminder of the Roman Legacy

Roman Architecture

The Colosseum, Rome


The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

Roman Architecture

The Colosseum, Rome


The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

Roman Architecture

Roman baths at Bath, England


The Cultural & Linguistic Legacy of Rome

Le Pont du Gard, Nîmes, France