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  1. Year 10 Revision Booklet GCSE Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet Exam 14th June 2010 8.45 am- 9.45 am

  2. Exam structure • The exam will last for 1 hour • You need to answer ALL questions in Section A • The Coastal Change and Conflicts question in Section B • The Oceans on the Edge question in Section C DO NOT ANSWER QUESTIONS ON RIVER PROCESSES AND MANAGEMENT OR EXTREME CLIMATES.

  3. Section A: Introduction to the Dynamic Planet1. Restless Earth What you need to know: • Earth’s interior • Plates and plate margins • Volcanic and earthquake hazards • Hazard management

  4. Theory 1. How and Why do the Earth’s tectonic plates move? You need to be able to label the sections of the Earth. Try labelling this diagram and defining the key terms. What are convection currents? How do they work? Sketch an example and label it. This is a map of the plate boundaries. Below name the 4 different boundaries: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the boxes below draw each of the 4 boundaries and explain how they work. Do they create volcanoes or cause earthquakes?

  5. Theory 2. What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic hazards? Hazards pose a threat to us, but not all hazardous events are disasters. This depends on: 1. The type of hazards 2. The place’s vulnerability to hazards (LEDC, location, distance from volcano) 3. The ability or capacity to cope and recover from a hazardous event Primary Impacts= that place at the time of the event itself and are directly caused by it Secondary Impacts= that follow the event, and are indirectly caused by it Capacity refers to the ability of a community to absorb, and ultimately recover from, the effects of a natural hazard. Hazard Measurement: Earthquakes are measured by the RICHTER SCALE and the MERCALLI SCALE Volcanoes can be measured using the VEI (VOLCANIC EXPLOSIVITY INDEX) Management: Remember there are two ways to manage earthquakes this is being prepared (being ready for the event) and being able to reduce the impact (mitigation). We can also manage the impact of hazards by the following: • Building design (cross bracing, earthquake proof housing etc) • Warning systems (especially in Tsunami prone areas and for areas with an erupting volcano) • Preparation days (such as in Japan) • Having a disaster management cycle incorporating RESPONSE and RECOVERY techniques.

  6. Case Studies Mauna Loa, Hawaii, a Shield Volcano Here you can make notes on the case studies you have studied. Make sure you use the Purple text book for extra examples and to fill out your notes. You must be able to say where the case study is LOCATED, IMPACTS, RESPONSE, WHY IT HAPPENED, EFFECTS. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, a Composite Volcano

  7. Case Studies Here you could make case study notes on the studies you have done in class.

  8. 2. Climate and Change What you need to know: • Past ‘natural’ change • The impacts of past change • Present and future change • The future challenge

  9. Theory 1. How and why has climate changed in the past? you need to be able to describe how climate has changed over time both warm and cold periods have existed on Earth over the last 100 million years. The last Ice Age was approximately 1.8million years a go- this is called the Pleistocene era. The warm period we are in now is called the Holocene and this started 10,000 years ago. Read pg 28 to find out more. Natural causes of climate change: make sure you know how these cause changes in our climate. • Orbital changes- long-term • Solar Output- medium-term • Volcanic activity – short-term THE LITTLE ICE AGE pg 30-31: What was the little ice age? How do we know the little ice age happened? What were the effects of the little ice age? EXTINCTION OF MEGAFAUNA: Megafauna are large animals that became extinct at the end of the last ice age (Pleistocene). These animals lived in North America and Europe (Including the UK). These animals included wolly mammoths, sabre-toothed tiger, large wolves and large beavers. As many as 135 species became extinct. Read page 33 to find out why and make notes below:

  10. Theory 2. What challenges might our future climate present us with? What are greenhouse gases? Imagine the world to be surrounded by a greenhouse. The glass is a mix of the gases: Chlorofluorocarbons, Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Carbon dioxide. The gases provide a shelter, letting heat in, but preventing most heat from escaping TASK: make 2 spider diagrams that show the human and natural causes of greenhouse gases. Use Pg 34-35 to help. How have the levels of greenhouse gases changed over time? The map on page 36 shows countries based on co2 emissions. China and the USA are the biggest countries on the map and its not because of population. Why are they so big? Why are Africa, Australia and New Zealand so small? The UK has a small population compared to some European countries- why is it so big on this map? HINT: think about the countries population, industry, development and then link to the amount of co2 they produce. In 2008, world carbon dioxide concentrations passed 380 ppm (parts per million). In 1800, it was just 280 ppm. This figure grows by 2ppm every year. This is despite efforts made by people and governments world wide. Increased wealth in Asia has seen an increase In the amount of methane produced. This is because there is an increasing Demand for meat and dairy in diets. The IPCC (intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) believes that greenhouse Gases need to be below 550ppm. Pg 37.

  11. Case Studies Climate Change in the UK Climate Change and sea-level rise in LEDC’’s.

  12. 3. Battle for the Biosphere What you need to know: • Location of biomes • Biomes as a ‘life support’ • Threats • Management

  13. Theory 1. What is the value of the biosphere? You need to be able to describe a minimum of 4 different Biomes: You could revise the following but do revise more: • Deserts • Rainforests • Savannah • Deciduous You should be able to LOCATE them geographically, using BOTH longitude and latitude, give examples of countries in which they are located and describe the CLIMATE and CHARACTERISTICS. There are a number of different factors that influence where we find different Biomes these are…. • Latitude • Continentally • Altitude • Temperature • Precipitation • Geology, Relief and Drainage. • Identify which are local and which are global Why do we need to protect the biosphere? Pg 46

  14. LOCAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIOMES: Read page 43- make notes about How local factors affect biomes: The biosphere acts as a life support system for the planet- it regulates the composition of the atmosphere, maintaining soil health and regulating the hydrological cycle. The biosphere provides humans with goods and services; complete the spider diagram below. Use page 44-45 to help.

  15. Theory 2. How have humans affected the biosphere and how might it be conserved? Few places on earth remain free from human interference. On the next page is an in-depth case study of Amazonia. You need to complete these parts as part of this question in the specification. Pollution and climate change bring stress and change: This includes the deliberate removal of forest to create space for agriculture is an example of direct human actions damaging the biosphere. How else can humans cause this? Pg 50. How has the UK changed? You need to be able to discuss temperature raises and how the biosphere in the UK has changed over time. Think about how the wildlife in the UK has also been affected e.g. Bird species decline. CONSERVATION AT A GLOBAL SCALE: nearly 200 countries in the world are needing to sign agreements for conservation at a global-scale. TASK: make a table the shows all the conservation schemes globally that says what they aim to do and why. Pg 52. Why is it important to conserve wetlands and what is the role of the Ramsar convention 1971? Answer this in your own words using pg 53 to help. CONSERVATION AT A LOCAL SCALE: BIOSPHERE MANAGEMENT: It is important to sustainably manage all the biomes in the local areas as well as globally. This is because if you THINK LOCAL YOU CAN ACT GLOBAL. Everything has a knock-on effect. This is where you need to discuss a local case study- an example in the Caledonian Forest in Scotland.

  16. Case Studies AMAZON RAINFOREST: location: destruction: Soya craze: people pressure: Windsor Forest (page 47): An example of deciduous forest over-use in MEDC

  17. Case StudiesUse this page to make notes on any other case studies you have done in class time:

  18. 4. Water World What you need to know: • Hydrological cycle • Human interference • Threats • Managing water resources

  19. Theory 1. Why is water important to the health of the planet? It is important that you know all the parts of the hydrological cycle and about water stores. Go through the key words list that you have in your book and make your own hydrological cycle diagram and label as you draw. The hydrosphere is made up of all water stores including oceans, rivers, lakes and streams. These interact and link together the atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Without one you cant have the others- WHY? UNRELIABLE WATER: COMPULSORY CASE STUDY= AUSTRALIA Flows within the hydrological cycle vary over different time scales these are; seasonal variations, longer natural cycles and climate change. Pg 58. TASK: make a spider diagram that compares both the Sahel region in Africa and Australia as places with unreliable water. Use different colours to help compare. CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLIES: Climate change could make places DRIER and experience droughts OR it could make places WETTER where more evaporation has taken place... Remember what goes up must come down!! Use pg 60-61 to say how climate change is affecting water in Asia and America. AMERICA: ASIA:

  20. Theory 2.How can water resources be sustainably managed? How can water be polluted? Humans put enormous pressure on rivers- they are used for transport, industry, drinking and sewerage disposal. The three most damaging types of pollution are on pg 62. Water supplies can also be disrupted by human actions: • Changing flows deforestation may lead to over-supply of water to rivers. This can lead to flooding. Drainpipes in urban areas also can lead to accelerated supply to rivers. • Changing stores these are naturally recharged when it rains. They are essential for human existence. If water is taken from these stores too quickly they will not have a chance to re-charge and they will dry up. This is called over abstraction. • Coca-cola and the Plachimada aquifer an example of over abstraction in an LEDC by a trans-national corporation. Pg 63. Water can be managed on two scales; large and small scale. You need to know an example of each scale. The text books has examples of the Colorado River in America and a hand-pump in Tanzania. You may have also looked at the Three Gorges Dam in China and researched a Northamptonshire example of small-scale water management. You must think about SUSTAINABILITY when you are answering any question about management. Does it consider the SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC and POLITICAL aspects? INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY this is a management strategy that can be used in poorer countries. It allows them to install appropriate, small-scale practical solutions that local people can apply and maintain themselves. This includes: hand pumps, lined wells and rain barrels or pumpkin tanks.

  21. Case Studies AUSTRALIA’S UNRELIABLE WATER Where is the desert in Australia located? Why are there water shortages here? What are the impacts of this water shortage? What are the solutions?

  22. Case Studies Colorado River large-scale water management Location of Colorado and dam: Background information: Afridev handpump in Tanzania small-scale water management Location: Background information:

  23. Case StudiesHere you need to add in any other case study notes from lessons:

  24. Section B: Small-scale Dynamic PlanetCoastal Change and Conflict What you need to know: • Geology and landforms • Geomorphology and processes • Coastal erosion • Managing the coast

  25. Theory 1. How are different coastlines produced by physical processes? The shape of a coastline can be affected by two main things: geology and wave erosion. There are two types of coastline, define what they are like below (use the table pg 70 and 71): Concordant Coastline Discordant Coastline Coasts can also be formed by erosion: remember the anagram CASH to recite the types of erosion (MARINE PROCESSES): C A S H In your notes, draw a diagram that shows the landforms that are created by this type of erosion. WAVES  define these key terms in your notes: • Swash • Backwash • Destructive • Constructive • Fetch Coastal landforms can be made by EROSION or by DEPOSITION. The process of LONGSHORE DRIFT creates depositional features that include, beaches, spits, bars and tombolo’s. You need to have NAMED examples of each of these features.

  26. Theory Landforms at the coast can also be caused by cliff retreat. These features and landforms include WAVE-CUT NOTCHES AND PLATFORMS. At the Seven Sisters in Kent, the cliffs are 160 metres high and the wave-cut platform extends 540 metres out to sea! WEATHERING there are 3 types of weathering also called SUB-AERIAL PROCESSES • Mechanical weathering salt crystal growth can increase cracks in rocks causing stress • Chemical weathering Co2 dissolves in water causing acidic water- this can react with the minerals in rocks to dissolve it • Biological weathering roots of vegetation and burrowing animals can cause stress in rock cracks MASS MOVEMENT there are 2 forms of mass movement at the coast. These can dramatically change the coastline even overnight! • Rock fall sudden movements, rocks collect at the base • Slumping happens when the bottom of a cliff is eroded away by waves. The cliff can become weak and slide downwards. This can be triggered by heavy rain. This can be a rotational movement. How else can coastlines be affected? Fill in the notes below: 1. Changing sea levels and storm activity 2. Storms at sea causing coastal flooding

  27. Theory 2. Why does conflict occur on the coast, and how can this be managed? Read pages 76-77 in your text book to find out about rates of cliff retreat and the effects it has on people and businesses. There are many ways to manage coastal erosion and these are split into HARD and SOFT (holistic) ENGINEERING. In your notes create a table the shows the advantages and disadvantages of each coastal management strategy. Examples of each type of engineering include: HARD sea walls, groyne, rip rap, revetments, off-shore reefs SOFT or holistic approaches beach replenishment, managed retreat, cliff regarding ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management this means treating a coastal zone as one managed planned development. Read pg 81 to find out more. In the UK local councils and the Environment Agency pay for coastal defences. They choose from the following 4 options: • Hold the line use sea defences to stop erosion EXPENSIVE • Advance the line use sea defences to move the coast further into the sea VERY EXPENSIVE • Strategic Retreat gradually let the coast erode and move people away from risks. This may involve compensation for some people • Do nothing let nature take its course. You may be asked about these options in the exam and be able to link them to a NAMED EXAMPLE. If you are asked about which choice might be best or worst you must remember to consider the SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS AND THEN LINK TO sustainability. You also need to consider any CONFLICTS that might occur here you should have a conflict matrix in your book. Refer to that and learn it!

  28. Case Studies • Where is Holderness located? • Describe what Holderness is like • What makes Holderness prone to erosion? • What are the options available to people in Holderness? • What has already been lost in Holderness? • Read the opinions on coastal management- put them into an order of Strongly for and strongly against coastal management • What are the costs and benefits to managing the coast? • What do you think they should do? People and property in Holderness- pg 78-79 Answer the following questions to build up a good case study: • Swanage Bay- Costal management • Location • Problems and solutions in Durlston Bay • Problems in Swanage Bay • Solutions in Swanage Bay • Impacts compass rose

  29. Case StudiesUse this space to add notes on any other case studies you have done in class.

  30. Section C: Large-Scale Dynamic PlanetOceans on the Edge What you need to know: • Threats to the ocean • Ecosystem change • Increasing exploitation • Sustainable management

  31. Theory 1. How and why are some ecosystems threatened with destruction? The term ecosystem describes a grouping of plants and animals that is linked with its local physical environment. The oceans, covering two-thirds of our planet, are home to marine ecosystem communities composed of fish, aquatic plants and sea birds- as well as tiny but very important organisms such as krill and plankton. HINT: make sure you are able to name some values of the Oceans e.g. its uses and value to human and animal life. TASK: make notes and research further the importance and value of CORAL REEFS AND MANGROVE SWAMPS. Pg 102-103. The way we use Oceans is becoming UNSUSTAINABLE this means we aren't treating/using it in a way that will preserve it for future generations. Within the oceans here is a natural balance between all life- these relationships form the FOOD WEB. Use page 104 to make a copy of the Oceanic food web. It is also important to consider the NUTRIENT CYCLE which is the movement and re-use of important substances e.g., nitrogen. DISRUPTION’S TO FOOD WEBS the main three disruptions you need to understand are: • Over fishing • Eutrophication • Siltation Climate change also disrupts the oceans. Use page 106 to make notes below to explain how and why: • Warmer water • More acidic water and bleaching • Higher sea levels

  32. Theory 2. How should ecosystems be managed sustainably? There are two ways that marine ecosystems can be managed and that is again, as with the other units, at a LOCAL and GLOBAL SCALE. Case study on Firth of Clyde, Scotland (see next page to complete this activity). This is an example of where humans are putting pressure on the marine wildlife and there are plans to make the area more sustainable. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A LOCAL SCALE Managing coral reefs reefs are made of living animals, each piece contains polyp. They are part of a large colony of marine life. The polyp are skeletal creatures that form coral in clear, warm and sunlight seas. Coral reefs are home to ¼ of the world’s fish species. It also acts as natural barriers that protect the coastline from erosion. They are also great for tourism. However there are sustainability issues that come with this. Complete the case study6 on Coral Triangle on the case study section. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A GLOBAL SCALE Global actions are needed to tackle pollution and to save threatened species from overfishing and extinction. International Organisations play a large role in ensuring that the oceans are protected. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisations regulates the management of deep sea fisheries. Individuals around the world can also ‘do their bit’ by changing their shopping habits to ensure that we only buy sustainably sources fish and buy ‘dolphin friendly’ tuna. TASK: use page 114-115 to find out how else we are protecting our oceans. Make sure you know which Organisations are helping too!

  33. Case Studies Pressures in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland page 109-111 The Firth of Clyde is a 60km stretch of water along Scotland’s West coast. It is home to 40,000 animal and microbe species. You can often see seals, harbour porpoises and basking sharks in this area. Leather back Turtles and Killer Whales are sometimes seen as well. So it is obviously an extremely important ecosystem. Make notes on the 4 main pressures that humans put on this area. Which is the most severe and why? 1. Fishing 2. Tourism and leisure 3. Sewerage disposal 4. Military testing What is the impact of scallop fishing in Lamlash Bay? Locals views- what do the people think? Future Plans?

  34. Case Studies Sustainable Management of the Coral Triangle Shetland Islands Aquaculture

  35. Case studiesuse this space to add notes on any other case studies you have done in lessons.

  36. Practice Questions Restless Earth • Using examples, describe some of the hazards of living on a destructive plate margin (4) Foundation • Using an example, outline the impact of a major earthquake on people and property in the developing world (4) Higher • Describe 2 ways in which buildings in developing countries can be made more resistant to earthquakes (2) • Explain how preparation and mitigation could reduce tectonic hazards (4) • Explain why some areas are more vulnerable than others (4) • Explain the role magma plays in shaping shield volcanoes (2) • How do tectonic plates move? (2) Climate and change • Describe two human activities which are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (4) Foundation • Describe two challenges the UK might face in the future due to global warming (4) higher • Explain one possible good and bad effect of global warming (4) • What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? (3) • Describe one natural cause of climate change in the past (2) • What is megafauna? (2)

  37. Battle for the biosphere • Describe some of the goods and services the biosphere provides humans with (4) Foundation • Describe two services the biosphere provides and explain why they are important (4) Higher • Describe 2 ways the forests are important to human life (4) • Explain how one biome is being threatened by human interference (4) • Explain the value of one biome you have studied (4) • Using examples, explain some ways of conserving threatened species (4) • Explain how one biome is being threatened by human interference (2) Water world • Describe how deforestation could affect water-cycle processes (4) Foundation • Explain how human activity could change the amount of infiltration (3) Higher • Name the two largest water stores on earth (2) • Explain why Australia’s water is considered unreliable (4) • Describe two ways in which climate change could impact on water supplies (4) • Explain why the biosphere and lithosphere are important to the hydrological cycle (4) • Using a named example, describe how water schemes in LEDC’s improve quality of life. (4) • Describe the causes of river pollution and explain how people dealt with it (5)

  38. Coastal change and conflict • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of different hard engineering methods used to protect coastlines (6) Foundation • Explain why some cliffs erode more rapidly than others (6) Higher • Describe and explain the process of Longshore Drift (6) • What is a concordant coastline? (2) • Describe how changing sea levels can impact coastlines (4) • Using named examples, explain the effects of erosion at the coast on people (6) • Using named examples, explain how coastal management choices can cause conflict at the coast (6) • Describe how strategic retreat would work as a coastal management strategy (4) Oceans on the edge • Using examples, describe the threats facing marine ecosystems (6) Foundation • Using named examples, explain the short and long-term threats facing marine ecosystems (6) Higher • Describe the type of area a mangrove swamp might be found (2) • How can an undisturbed mangrove swamp support human activities? (2) • How could an increase in demand for one type of fish impact on the food chain? (6) • Explain how the change in ocean s=currents could impact marine ecosystems? (6) • Explain why the worlds oceans are under threat (4) • With reference to an example, explain the problems and successes of sustainable fishing (4)