By 1885, settlers had begun to arrive across the prairies. Metis who had left Red River, to settle in Saskatchewan began to feel as though they would lose their lands all over again. • The buffalo were almost gone, the Dominion Lands Act was unfair to the Metis, and it seemed as though everything was getting worse... • Ottawa was ignoring their petitions for secure land titles, agricultural help, schools and a local police force A REBELLION WAS BREWING
A Metis named Gabriel Dumont travelled to the United States to convince Louis Riel to come back to Manitoba and save the Metis. • On March 19, Riel and Dumont seized the parish church at Batoche and formed a second provisional government. • It was almost the same as at Red River, but there was a BIG difference... First Nations leaders fully supported Riel and the Metis.
Macdonald’s Advantages Compared to Red River in 1869 • He decided at once to stop Riel and his supporters • Northwest Mounted Police: formed in 1873, officers were in the area and were READY TO FIGHT • CPR was almost complete, so it would be easy to move troops from Ontario to the West • By April 10, 3000 troops were assembled near Batoche
Riel and Dumont • Riel realized that this rebellion would be more like a war, so he quickly appointed Gabriel Dumont as his military leader • Dumont used GORILLA TACTICS to outwit the government troops • Instead of fighting head-on, Dumont used ambushes and scare tactics to keep the troops scared and constantly expecting attack
MAJOR EVENTS • 1) Battle of Duck Lake • March 26, 1885 • Metis forced the police and army to retreat • First time gorilla tactics were used
2) Frog Lake Massacre • April 2, 1885 • This was a sneak attack by a gang of Plains Cree warriors on a small community because the Indian agent, Thomas Quinn, had treated the Cree badly. • Quinn refused to leave as a captive, so he was shot • Eight other men were also shot • In November, 6 Cree men were tried and hanged for their roles in the massacre.
3) Battle of Batoche • Riel was upset with Dumont`s progress • He order Dumont and his followers to defend Batoche • A BIG MILITARY MESS-UP!!! • Government army could now concentrate their efforts on one spot • A force of 900 soldiers attacked 300 Metis and Cree defenders at Batoche from May 9 to 12. • On May 12th, Riel surrendered and was arrested • Dumont fled to the United States Cree fighters continued to fight for a few more days, but battles on May 28th and June 3rd ended the resistance.
After the Rebellion • The strength of the Metis was broken • Riel was tried for treason and, in one of John A. MacDonald`s hardest decisions, executed. • English-French tensions exploded • English part of the country supported MacDonald • French saw Riel as a hero for defending Roman-Catholic and French language rights, and so blamed MacDonald for Riel`s death
History Today • In 1992, the government of Canada put forth a Bill that reversed Riel`s original conviction of treason • He is now recognized as the founder of Manitoba, and is acknowledged for his contribution to Confederation and Metis rights