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Cell Theory and Structure. Development of the Light Microscope Evolution of the Cell Theory Spontaneous Generation Disproven Histochemistry , Mitosis, and Meiosis Classes of Biochemicals in Cells Electron Microscopy and Ultrastructure. The Microscope.

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Development of the Light Microscope

  • Evolution of the Cell Theory
  • Spontaneous Generation Disproven
  • Histochemistry, Mitosis, and Meiosis
  • Classes of Biochemicals in Cells
  • Electron Microscopy and Ultrastructure
the microscope
The Microscope
  • An understanding of cells and the structure of cells had to wait until structures so small could be visualized by magnification.
origin of the microscope
Origin of the Microscope
  • The first record of the invention of a microscope was by Hans and Zacharias Janssen (Netherlands) in 1590?
  • Galileo Galileiimproved the microscope in 1609 (in the same way that he improved the telescope) and by 1624-1625 published magnified drawings of insects.
  • Suffered from chromatic and spherical aberrations

Galileo’s first microscope from 1609

Illustrations of honey bees made with an improved Galileo microscope in 1630

anton ie philips van leeuwenhoek
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek

Made a powerful single-lens microscope with which he observed many types of unicells and tissues. He even drew bacteria.

A single-lens microscope

1632-1723, Netherlands

His drawing of an ash stem section

robert hooke s micrographia
Robert Hooke’s Micrographia
  • Hooke was intrigued by the reports sent by van Leeuwenhoek and built his own microscope on the design of Galileo
  • He confirmed many of the observations that van Leeuwenhoek reported
  • Made many of his own original observations
  • Published Micrographia in 1665

Much of the microscopic work of the rest of the 17th and 18th centuries was descriptive [and there was much to describe].

  • Near the beginning of the 19th century, microscopes were made that reduced the problems of chromatic aberration

Trunnion Model microscope made by Charles A. Spencer (1813-1881), US manufacturer of microscopes

ernst karl abbe
Ernst Karl Abbe
  • Partner of Carl Zeiss
  • Optical physicist
  • Invented the apochromatic lens and corrections to spherical aberration
  • Sought to maximize resolution of the light microscope
  • Demonstrated the limit of resolution around 0.5μm

1840-1905, Germany

the cell theory
The Cell Theory
  • …also, by the early part of the 19th century enough biological material had been observed to begin to make generalizations.
matthias jakob schleiden
Matthias JakobSchleiden
  • A botanist and microscopist
  • In 1838 declared that the plant organism is made of cells
  • He accepted the importance of the nucleus, discovered by Robert Brown (1773-1858), and speculated on its role in cell division

1804-1881, Germany

theodor schwann
Theodor Schwann
  • He was a zoologist and a microscopist
  • Physiologist and microanatomist
  • Discovered the connection between yeast and fermentation
  • Following Schwann’s pronouncement, declared that animals, too, are made of cells as the fundamental building blocks

1810-1882, Germany

virchow and remak
Virchow and Remak

Virchow’s cell theory

  • Rudolph Carl Virchow (1821-1902, Germany) suggested that disease is a cellular problem
  • He stated that all cells come from pre-existing cells, a theory stated earlier by Robert Remak(1815-1865, Poland)

Virchow (1821-1902)

Remak (1815-1865)

the question of spontaneous generation
The Question of Spontaneous Generation
  • Spontaneous generation clearly stated for some plants and animals by Aristotle in History of Animals and On the Generation of Animals
  • Francesco Redi(1626-1697, Italy)
  • John Tuberville Needham (1713-1781, England) boiled broth and then sealed after a time to allow the vital force to enter
  • LazzaroSpallanzani(1729-1799, Italy) boiled broth and immediately sealed it
louis pasteur
Louis Pasteur
  • Disproved spontaneous generation
  • Causes of fermentation
  • Germ theory of disease
  • Immunology and vaccination

1822-1895, France

the cell theory by 1858
The Cell Theory by 1858
  • All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
  • The cell is the most basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all organisms.
  • All cells come from pre-existing, living cells.
histology and paul ehrlich
Histology and Paul Ehrlich
  • Aniline dyes had been derived from coal tars in the early part of 19th Century
  • Karl Weigert (1845-1904, Germany) used an aniline dye to stain bacteria
  • Ehrlich experimented with staining human tissues
  • He used chemical treatments to serve as the first chemotherapy (used Methylene Blue for syphilis)

1854-1915, Germany

The use of aniline dye to stain white blood cells

development of optical staining
Development of Optical Staining

Polarized light

Bright field



Differential Interference


Fluorescence Imaging

walther flemming
Walther Flemming
  • Used aniline dyes to visualize nuclei and chromosomes
  • All nuclei come from other nuclei
  • He discovered and described the mitotic cell cycle in cells from the gills and fins of salamanders.

1843-1905, Germany

Published in 1882

reduction division meiosis
Reduction Division: Meiosis
  • First described by Oskar Hertwig(1849-1922, Germany) in 1876 in the formation of sea urchin eggs.
  • Described again by Edouard van Beneden(1846-1910, Belgium) in 1890 in the formation of Ascaris eggs.
  • August Weismann (1834-1914, Germany) noted in 1911 that the reduction of chromosome numbers, employing meiosis, was necessary if nuclei were to fuse in sexual reproduction
major classes of biochemical compounds in living cells a very brief synopsis of chapter 22
Major Classes of Biochemical Compounds in Living Cells: A Very Brief Synopsis of Chapter 22
  • Lipids: made of glycerol and fatty acids
  • Carbohydrates: polymers of D-sugar units
  • Proteins: polymers of L-amino acid units
  • Nucleic Acids: polymers of nucleotides, each consisting of a phosphate, a D-sugar, and a nitrogenous base (pyrimidines and purines)
electron microscopy
Electron Microscopy
  • Two types: Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM)
transmission electron microscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy
  • Leo Szilard (1928) filed patent for electron microscope in concept
  • The prototype built in 1931 by Ruska and Knoll
  • Resolution limit for light microscope ~2,000X; but the limit for TEM ~2 millionX

Max Knoll (1897-1969, Germany, left) and Ernst Ruska (1906-1988, Germany, right) with first TEM

scanning electron microscopy
Scanning Electron Microscopy

Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin (1888-1982, Russia and USA) invented SEM and television (both based on raster principle)

With early television (kinetoscope) in 1929

current view of the cell theory
Current View of the Cell Theory
  • All known living things are made up of one or more cells.
  • All living cells arise from pre-existing cells by division.
  • The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms.
  • The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells.
  • Energy flow occurs within cells.
  • Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
  • All cells are basically the same in chemical composition in organisms of similar species.