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AS-400 Survival Lesson 1-3 The Survivors Needs
AS-400 Survival WARM-UP - Moon Lesson 1-3 The Survivors Needs
Chapter 1-3 1. Chapter Objective Know the two fundamental goals of a survivor are maintaining life and returning. 2. Samples of Behavior/Main Points a. List the four basic needs of a survivor. b. List the components of maintaining life. c. Describe the survivor’s primary defense against the effects of the environment. d. Describe why nutrition is important to a survivor. e. Describe the survivor’s food crises. f. Describe why prevention, self-aid, and psychological health important to a survivor. g. List the basic tasks confronting the survivor when faced with the need to return. h. Describe how a survivor can effectively aid in recovery. i. List the factors the survivor must weigh when faced with the need to travel against capabilities and/or safety.
Chapter 1-3 I. Goals of a Survivor. A. The two fundamental goals of a survivor. 1. To maintain life. 2. To return. B. These two goals may be further divided into four basic needs. 1. Personal Protection. 2. Health. 3. Travel. 4. Communications (signaling for recovery).
Chapter 1-3 II. Maintaining Life. The essential components of maintaining life are personal protection, nutrition, and health. A. Personal Protection. 1. The human body is fragile. Without protection, the effects of environmental conditions (climate, terrain, and life forms) and of induced conditions (radiological, biological agents, and chemical agent) may be fatal. 2. The survivor’s primary defense against the effects of the environment and some of the effects of induced conditions are clothing, equipment, shelter, and fire. 3. The need for adequate clothing and its proper care and use cannot be overemphasized. 4. The human body’s tolerance for temperature extremes is very limited. However, its ability to regulate heating and cooling is extraordinary. 5. Survival equipment is designed to aid survivors throughout their episode. It must be cared for to maintain its effectiveness. 6. The survivor’s need for shelter is twofold; as a place to rest and for protection from the effects of the environment. 7. In cold climates, the criticality of shelter can be measured in minutes, and rest is of little immediate concern. 8. Fire serves many survivor needs; purifying water, cooking and preserving food, signaling, and providing a source of heat to warm the body and dry clothing.
Chapter 1-3 • Nutrition. Survivors need food and water to maintain normal body functions and to provide strength, energy, and endurance to overcome the physical stresses of survival. • Water. The survivor must be constantly aware of the body’s continuing need for water. • Food. During the first hours of a survival situation, the need for food receives little attention. During the first 2 or 3 days, hunger becomes a nagging aggravation which a survivor can overcome. • The first major food crisis occurs when the loss of energy, stamina, and strength begin to affect the survivor’s physical capabilities. • The second major food crisis has a more gradual effect. A marked increase in irritability and other attitudes may occur as the starvation process continues. • Most people have food preferences. The natural tendency to avoid certain types of food is a major problem which must be overcome early in the survival situation. • The starvation process ultimately overcomes all food prejudices. The successful survivor overcomes these dislikes before physical or psychological deterioration sets in.
Chapter 1-3 • Health (Physical and Psychological). Self-aid is the survivor’s sole recourse. 1. Prevention. The need for preventive medicine and safety cannot be overemphasized. Attention to sanitation and personal hygiene is a major factor to preventing physical, morale, and attitude problems. 2. The need for cleanliness in the treatment of injuries and illness is self- evident. 3. Safety must be foremost in the mind of the survivor; carelessness is caused by ignorance and/or poor judgment or bad luck. 4. Self-Aid. In the event of injury, the survivor’s existence may depend on the ability to perform self-aid. 5. Illness and the need to treat it is more commonly associated with long- term situations such as an extended evasion episode or captivity. 6. When preventive techniques have failed, the survivor must treat symptoms of disease in the absence of professional medical care. 7. Psychological Health. Perhaps the survivor’s greatest need is the need for emotional stability and a positive, optimistic attitude. 8. An individual’s ability to cope with psychological stresses will enhance successful survival. 9. Optimism, determination, dedication, and humor, as well as many other psychological attributes, are all helpful for a survivor to overcome psychological stresses.
Chapter 1-3 • Returning. The need to return is satisfied by successful completion of one or both of the basic tasks confronting the survivor: aiding with recovery and traveling. A. Aiding With Recovery. 1. For survivors to effectively aid in recovery, they must be able to make their position and the situation on the ground known. 2. This is done either electronically, visually, or both. 3. Electronic signaling covers a wide spectrum of techniques. As problems such as security and safety become significant factors, procedures for using electronic signaling to facilitate recovery become increasingly complex. 4. Visual signaling is primarily the technique for attracting attention and pinpointing an exact location for rescuers. 5. Simple messages or information may also be transmitted with visual signals.
Chapter 1-3 B. Travel on Land. 1. A survivor may need to move on land for a variety of reasons, ranging from going for water to attempting to walk out of the situation. 2. In any survival episode, the survivor must weigh the need to travel against capabilities and safety. Factors to consider may include: a. The ability to walk or traverse existing terrain. (1) In a nonsurvival situation, a twisted or sprained ankle is an inconvenience accompanied by some temporary pain and restricted activity. (2) A survivor who loses the mobility to obtain food, water, and shelter, can face death. (3) There is a safe and effective way to travel across almost any type of terrain. b. The need to transport personal possessions (burden carrying). There are numerous documented instances of survivors abandoning equipment and clothing simply because carrying it was a bother. (1) Later, the abandoned materials were not available when needed to save life, limb, or aid in rescue. (2) Burden carrying should not be difficult or physically stressful. c. The ability to determine present position. (1) Maps, compasses, etc., permit accurate determination of position during travel. (2) Yet, the knowledgeable, skillful, and alert survivor can do well without. (3) Constant awareness, logic, and training in nature’s clues to navigation may allow a you to determine location. d. Restrictions of limitations to select and maintain a course of travel. (1) The tools used in determining position are the tools used to maintain a course of travel. (2) A straight-line course to a destination is usually the simplest, but not always be the best. (3) Travel courses may need to be varied for diverse reasons, such as to get food or water, or to avoid hazardous or difficult obstacles or terrain. (4) Careful planning and route selection before and during travel is essential.
Chapter 1-3 SUMMARY List the four basic needs of a survivor. List the components of maintaining life. Describe the survivor’s primary defense against the effects of the environment. Describe why nutrition is important to a survivor. Describe the survivor’s food crises. Describe why prevention, self-aid, and psychological health important to a survivor. List the basic tasks confronting the survivor when faced with the need to return. Describe how a survivor can effectively aid in recovery. List the factors the survivor must weigh when faced with the need to travel against capabilities and/or safety.
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