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Dental Public Health

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  1. Dental Public Health

  2. Dental Public Health Introduction

  3. Historical Development Dental Care Delivery in the United States around the world Financing Dental Care Legislative Initiatives Education and Promotion Target Populations Lesson Plan Program Planning Program Evaluation Oral Epidemiology Research Methods Biostatistics Evaluation of Literature and Products Careers in the Government Entreprenurial Initiatives Board Review Topics

  4. The Prevention Movement Dental Hygiene’s Relation to Dental Public Health

  5. Historical Development • Dental Hygiene as Forerunner to the Prevention Movement • Dr. Alfred Fones • Founder of Dental Hygiene School and First Author of Dental Hygiene College Textbook

  6. Historical Development Continued • Practice Settings • Schools • Industry • Military • Hospitals • Professional Organizations

  7. Preventive Modalities • Dental Hygiene Treatment • Fluoridation • Xylitol • Dental Sealants • Oral Cancer Exams and Tobacco Cessation • Nutritional Counseling • Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) • Mass Education/Media

  8. Dental Care Delivery In the United States

  9. Dental Care Delivery

  10. Dental Public Health The oral health care and education, with an emphasis on the utilization of dental hygiene sciences, delivered to a target population

  11. Factors Affecting Dental Health • Access to Care • Restriction of dental hygiene services • Shortage of Medicaid providers • Financial Situations • Insurance • Medicaid • Transportation

  12. Factors Affecting Dental Health, Continued • SES Relation to Dental Health • Dental Hygiene Sciences • Increase in the Geriatric Populations • Malpractice • Insurance Changes

  13. Federal Influence

  14. Department of Health and Human Services • Public Health Service Operating Division • Human Services Operating Division

  15. National Institutes of Health Food and Drug Administration Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Indian Health Services Health Resources and Services Administration Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Public Health Service Operating Division

  16. Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Medicaid Medicare Administration for Children and Families Administration on Aging Human Services Operating Division

  17. Public Health Service • PHS works toward improving and advancing the health of our nation. • U.S. Surgeon General • Dental Hygienists work as Public Health Officers.

  18. Agriculture Defense Education Justice Labor State Treasury Veteran’s Affairs United States Peace Corps (which is an executive branch agency) Other Federal DepartmentsInfluencing Dental Care

  19. Individual State Influence • State Dental Divisions • Medicaid • S-CHIPS • Prisons • Tribal Clinics • Institutions • Community Clinics

  20. Dental Health Care Personnel • Need • Demand • Utilization • Supply • Dental Hygiene Shortages • Dental Hygienist to Dentist Employment Ratio = 1:2

  21. Dental Finance Public and Private Funding of Dental Care

  22. Historical Funding of Dental Care • Patient’s Responsibility • The Advent of Dental Insurance • Medicaid Coverage for Dental Services • Today’s Dental Financing

  23. Payment Methods • Fee-for-Service • Capitation Plans • Encounter Fee Plans • Barter System

  24. Fee-for-Service • A dental practice sets a fee, and a patient and/or third party pays for the fee. • UCR: usual, customary and reasonable fee • Indemnity plans pay fee-for-service. • Discounted coverage available and sliding scales for certain patients in certain clinics

  25. Capitation Method • Dental Managed Care • A certain amount is paid to a dental practice for a certain number of patients. Payment is received whether treatment is provided or not. • Many times employees will state that they are not paid for “cleanings” provided; however, this is not an accurate statement.

  26. Encounter and Barter • Encounters are for an arrangement paid for each visit. • Barter system is used when the dental provider negotiates payment by exchanging goods and services.

  27. Insurance Plans • Dental Service Corporations • Health Service Corporations • Preferred Providers Organizations • Individual Practice Associations • Capitation Programs

  28. Dental Billing • Claim Form • ADA CDT • Payment Plans • Dental Credit Cards • Explanation of Benefits

  29. Government Role • Research • Disease Prevention • Disease Control • Program Planning and Operation • Funding for the Education of Dental Professionals • Regulation

  30. Government’s Role • U.S. PHS • Federal Block Grants • State Governments • Local Governments

  31. Medicaid • Title XIX • State/Federal Program • Your State’s Medicaid Program • Other State’s Medicaid Program

  32. Dental Care Delivery Around the World

  33. International Dental Health Care • Dental Diseases • Historical Perspective • Demographics and the Dental Hygienist • Global Education of the Dental Hygienist • The Role of the Dental Hygienist • Access to Care in Other Countries

  34. International Dental Health Care, Continued • Dental Public Health Programs and Campaigns • Oral Health Policies • Lobbying Groups • International Dental Organizations

  35. Related Dental Professionals Regulation of Dental Hygienists Independent Practice Portability of Licensure Future of Dental Hygiene International Overview

  36. Legislative Initiatives Affecting Dental Hygiene Practice In the United States

  37. Issues in the United States • Preceptorship/Alternative Education • On-the-Job Training for Supragingival Scaling • Restrictive Supervision Laws Affecting Access to Care • Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner

  38. State Governments • Legislative • Executive • Judicial

  39. Major Bodies of Law • Common Law • Statutory Law • Constitutional Law • Administrative Law

  40. State Dental Hygiene Practice Act, sometimes referred to as the statute Supervision Status Laws Pertaining to Dental Hygiene

  41. State Dental Board • Administrative Law • Governs Dental Hygienists and the Practice of Dental Hygiene • Rules and Regulations • Self-Regulation

  42. Unsupervised Independent Practice Collaborative Practice General Supervision Indirect Supervision Direct Supervision Supervision Types

  43. Related Dental Professionals Regulation of Dental Hygienists Independent Practice Portability of Licensure Future of Dental Hygiene International Overview

  44. Dental Health Education and Promotion

  45. Health Education Principles • Five Dimensional Health Model • Physical • Mental • Social • Spiritual • Emotional

  46. Dental Health Education • Goal: to prevent dental diseases utilizing appropriate dental health interventions

  47. Health Education Principles • Health Education: the education of health behaviors that bring an individual to a state of health awareness • Health Promotion: the informing and motivating of people to adopt health behaviors • Health Behavior: an action that helps prevent illness and promotes health for a population

  48. Goals of Dental Health Education • Provide Effective Dental Health Education.  • Change Values Aimed at Improving Health.  • Healthy Behaviors 

  49. Stages of Learning • Unawareness  • Awareness  • Self-Interest  • Involvement  • Action  • Habit

  50. Transtheoretical Model • Precontemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Maintenance • Action