Polymers Addition and Condensation By: Jennifer Sanford & Alex Snow
What is a Polymer? • Polymers are substances that have high molar masses and are made of a large amount of repeating units of monomers (ethene, tetrafluoruoethene, etc.). • Polymers are formed by chemical reactions in which a large number of molecules called monomers are joined sequentially, forming a chain. • In many polymers, only one monomer is used. This is a homo-polymer. Polymers that include a variety of repeating units are called co-polymers. • They occur naturally and are synthesized (man-made). • Are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. • The general structure consists of carbon with other substances such as hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, alkyl groups, etc. • They have a wide variety of uses, such as plastics.
Polymerization can occur in two ways: Addition Reactions and Condensation Reactions.
The Difference Between Addition and Condensation Polymers? • Polymers are classified by the characteristics of the reactions by which they are formed. • If all atoms in the monomers are incorporated into the polymer, the polymer is called an addition polymer. • If some of the atoms of the monomers are released into small molecules, such as water, the polymer is called a condensation polymer. • Most addition polymers are made from monomers containing a double bond between carbon atoms. Such monomers are called olefins, and most commercial addition polymers are polyolefins. • Condensation polymers are made from monomers that have two different groups of atoms which can join together to form, for example, ester or amide links.
General Structure • W,X,Y, and Z can represent hydrogen atoms, halogen atoms, alkyl, or other carbon containing side chains. • Most addition polymers are made from monomers containing a double bond between carbon atoms. Such monomers are called olefins, and most commercial addition polymers are polyolefins. • (Also known as alkenes)
Nomenclature If a polymer contains only one subunit, the prefix "poly" is added to the name of the subunit. For example, if a polymer is formed from a combination of ethylene monomers, its name would be polyethylene. Polymers containing more than one subunit are named based on the largest subunits, and are set off from the prefix "poly" with parentheses.
Everyday Uses! Polyethylene, used in milk containers/Plastics Teflon, used in cooking ware http://smallspaceliving.blogspot.com/2008/07/small-space-milk-not-just-for-squares.html http://tuberose.com/Teflon.html Poly(vinlychloride) (PVC), used for piping Polyisoprene, used in rubber bands http://www.fingerpainrelief.com/rubber-band-therapy-for-finger-pain/ http://www.hdpepipesandfittings.com/page/416799302-31968402
Naming Scheme • Condensation polymers do not have a specific or set naming scheme due to their many parts and many different monomers. • The monomers are different, unlike addition polymers which are usually the same monomer throughout the chain. • In most reactions, the poly prefix is used to designate that there are many, and both of the monomers are included into the naming.
Condensation Reactions A condensation reaction is the formation of a polymer through the breaking of bonds of functional groups as opposed to the addition reaction's breaking of double bonds.
When a condensation reaction occurs, the functional group of a monomer breaks off, allowing it to join to other monomers. This reaction, along with the polymer, leaves a small molecule (which is said to be 'condensed out') This molecule is usually water, hence 'Condensation' Reaction. Continued…
In this example, one monomer loses its hydroxyl group and the other its hydrogen. This forms water and a polymer. Examples Photo courtesy of http://science.howstuffworks.com
# 2 polyester polyethylene terephthalate
Everyday Uses! Woven Dacron Tubing used for surgeries Mylar, a sheet of polymers used for tape and many other objects http://ats.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/figsearch?FIRSTINDEX=50&SEARCHID=1&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&FULLTEXT=dacron&andorexactfulltext=&resourcetype=HWFIG http://workgroups.clemson.edu/CAFLS0320_PKGSC_INSIGHTS/prospective/undergraduate.php Nylon, used for clothing Kevlar, used for clothing and protection http://www.threadart.com/shop/category.aspx?catid=63 http://www.threadart.com/shop/category.aspx?catid=63
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