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MIM 512 Global Leadership & Ethics January 2012. Portland State University. Agenda. Review & Questions from last class Javidan Article discussion Guest Lecture: Anna Young, Senior Director of Strategy and Learning- Mercy Corp Lecture Leadership & identity Change and culture

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MIM 512

Global Leadership & Ethics

January 2012

Portland State University

  • Review & Questions from last class
    • Javidan Article discussion
  • Guest Lecture: Anna Young, Senior Director of Strategy and Learning- Mercy Corp
  • Lecture
    • Leadership & identity
    • Change and culture
    • Leadership, organizations, and change
    • Distance Leadership
javidan s model
Javidan’s Model
  • Visionary – develop a new sense of direction
  • Innovator – risk takers who generate ideas
  • Mobilizer – develop a pool of intellectual energy
  • Auditor – High performance expectations
  • Ambassadors – understands intra/inter orgs
  • +
  • Socializer – inclusive of others
  • Consideration - listens
  • Self-sacrifice – viewed as participative
  • Analyzer – understands and listens
taiwan versus canada
Taiwan versus Canada
  • Shared Charisma, ambassador, & auditor in leaders
  • Canadians value visionary leaders
    • advancement
    • individualistic
  • Taiwanese value mobilizer leaders
    • cooperation
    • belongingness
    • work climate
leadership identity
Leadership & Identity
  • Social identity has a significant impact in how we lead and behave as followers
  • Leaders that take on the group norm often gain trust from followers to work in their interest
  • Leaders that gain trust and identity are effective regardless of whether they are involved in group work, leaders that lack identity must be involved in group activities
  • Leaders that gain group identity reduce uncertainty & drive change effectively
  • Quote (p. 484) “..despite all the changes, the core aspects of the collective identity are maintained”
  • Does this work in distance leadership across borders & cultures?
leadership identity1
Leadership & Identity
  • Followers with a high degree of group identity generally feel leaders with a similar identity are more fair
  • Leaders that strive for identification tend towards LMX leadership
  • Leaders with group identity are more likely to be viewed as charismatic
  • Entrepreneur of identity – Leaders create group and leader identity by empowerment
  • But…
  • Does this work in distance leadership across borders & cultures?
culture and change
Culture and Change
  • Acculturation: Ability to adapt
    • Assimilation – adapt to dominant group
    • Integration – accept universalism
    • Separation – keep distance from host group
    • Marginalization – lose home culture completely
  • Willingness to take risks and learn from those risks
  • Six change questions to ask:
    • What are our customers telling us?
    • How relevant is our mission?
    • What are our stockholders telling us?
    • What are our competitors saying?
    • What are our employees trying to say?
    • Are we ahead or behind?
culture and change1
Culture and Change
  • How ready is the organization to change?
    • Evolutionary change?
    • Revolutionary change?
  • What is the Process of change?
    • Momentum – can the change stick?
    • Chaos during the change
    • Power and politics – leader’s ability to influence
    • Incentives / intrinsic rewards
  • How much is right?
    • 150 / 7
culture and change2
Culture and Change
  • Key is learning agility:
    • Critical thinking skills
    • Self-knowledge
    • Comfort with ambiguity
    • Comfort with risk and making mistakes
  • Change in practice
    • Certain changes cannot be controlled
    • Control what you can
    • Recognize fear
    • Sell the benefits
    • Remind group that change is going to occur
culture and change3
Culture and Change
  • Organizational Learning is:
    • Adapting to external environment
    • The willingness to adapt
    • Know when to reinforce and when to destruct work patters
    • Know when to create new work patters
    • Reward collective learning
    • Learn to rapidly utilize new learning in the org
  • Four types of Social units
    • The workgroup – interdependent toward one goal
    • The team – peers – specific objectives
    • The network team – virtual
    • The community – related by non-task work
improvement requires change

Your existing system is designed to give

you the results you’re currently getting.

Somebody once said: - "the only person who likes change - is a wet baby".

Someone else said - "No one resists change - they resist being changed“

If you want different results, you must

change the system!

Improvement Requires Change
mintzberg s organizational divisions
Mintzberg’s Organizational Divisions

Operating core: people who do the work

Strategic Apex: Leadership

Middle line: Hierarchy

Technostructure: staff / ideas

Support Staff: staff / services

mintzberg s organizational divisions1
Mintzberg’s Organizational Divisions
  • Confusion - difficulty in realizing that change is going to happen.
  • Immediate Criticism - rejecting change before hearing the details.
  • Denial - refusing to accept that things have changed.
  • Malicious Compliance - smiling and seeming to go along, only to demonstrate a lack of compliance later on.
  • Sabotage - taking actions to inhibit or kill the change.
mintzberg s organizational divisions2
Mintzberg’s Organizational Divisions
  • Easy Agreement - agreeing with little resistance, without realizing what is being agreed to.
  • Deflection - changing the subject and hoping "maybe it'll go away."
  • Silence - complete absence of input, which may be the most difficult resistance to deal with.
  • Each of these five parts in the chart has a tendency to pull the organization in a particular direction favorable to them
mintzberg s organizational divisions3
Mintzberg’s Organizational Divisions
  • 1. Direct setting or simple structure: relies on direct supervision from the strategic apex, the CEO. - China
  • 2. Machine Bureaucracy
  • Large organizations: relies on standardization of work processes by the techno-structure. - EU
  • 3. Professional Bureaucracy
  • The professional services firm: relies on the professionals' standardization of skills and knowledge in the operating core. - USA
  • 4. Divisionalized Form
  • Multi-divisional organization: relies on standardization of outputs; middle-line managers run independent divisions. - USA
mintzberg s organizational divisions4
Mintzberg’s Organizational Divisions
  • 5. Adhocracy
  • Project organizations: highly organic structure with little formalization; relies on mutual adjustment as the key coordinating mechanism within and between these project teams. – EU
  • In later work Mintzberg added two more configurations:
  • 6. Missionary Form
  • Coordination occurs based on commonly held ideologies or beliefs: standardization of norms. - USA
  • 7. Political Form
  • No coordination form is dominant: control is based on forming alliances. - China
leadership change
Leadership & Change
  • The pre-launch stage:
    • Self awareness – tolerance for ambiguity
    • Motives – personal goals versus organization
    • Values – is it the culture that needs to be changed?
  • The Launch stage:
    • Communicating the need
    • Initial activities – rally around “customer” or “products”
    • Dealing with resistance – turf & politics
  • Post-launch stage:
    • Hold people’s feet to the fire
    • Deal with avoidance mechanisms – finger pointing and blaming
    • Take the heat
    • Be consistent – repeat the message
distance leadership
Distance Leadership
  • What creates distance leadership?
    • Globalization
    • Outsourcing / off-shoring
    • M&A
    • New developing markets
      • Content requirements
  • Leader communication
  • Intragroup communication – tasks in projects, knowledge sharing
  • external communication – customers & suppliers
  • Mechanisms – e-mail, face-to-face, travel, phone, etc
    • High Performance groups prefer face-to-face
virtually through linkages
Virtually through ‘linkages’
  • The concept of global production network (GPN)

Source: Ernst & Kim, 2001

distance leadership1
Distance Leadership
  • Challenges to distance leadership:
    • Borders – organizational and financial
    • Knowledge sharing
      • Tacit
      • Codified
      • Decision rights
      • Alienable rights
  • What should be co-located and how should it be organized?
  • Culture both in the organization and the geography
findings in study
Findings in Study
  • Geographic dispersion was not associated with performance
  • Leader intra-group communication was found critical to performance, intergroup was not
  • Leader intra-group communication in a dispersed geography was highly critical to performance
  • Leadership that best fosters “problem solving” by open communication
findings in study1
Findings in Study
  • Electronic groups: hard time reaching consensus and can over communicate
  • How do leaders foster trust remotely?
  • Face-to-face mtgs were far and away to most effective form of communication in geographically dispersed groups
  • However, informal communication was found to be just as important as formal reviews and meetings
leadership distance
Leadership Distance
  • Co-location for a substantive time at the beginning of a project has a significant effect on completion of projects
      • training but also culture
      • Aligning expectations
      • Cross fertilization of knowledge
  • Distance leadership has pitfalls:
      • Team members don’t know who is in the room
      • Mistakes are transparent
      • Trust again is paramount
leadership traits in distance orgs
Leadership traits in distance orgs
  • Transformational Leadership – in Virtual teams has been more effective do to encourage exchange of ideas
  • Enthusiasm, confidence, appreciation for diverse views, & looking at problems in new ways
  • Face-to-face teams act in a more constructive style versus Virtual teams that are defensive
  • The higher the constructive style, the more the teams are accepting of another team’s solution
  • Expertise may overcome Virtual team errors however they have a harder time becoming cohesive
  • Media type only effects leadership interaction style
leadership traits in distance orgs1
Leadership traits in distance orgs
  • Leaders of Virtual teams need to develop a constructive interaction style, again supporting the need for initial face-to-face mtgs
  • Virtual teams are less effective if they are temporary versus long term strategies
  • Leaders of distance orgs must be tech savvy
  • In virtual teams and matrix orgs, unassigned leaders may emerge as group leaders informally
singaporean hospital example
Singaporean Hospital example
  • Transformational leaders – charisma improves distance leaders
  • Hospital employees respected their distance leader more than onsite leaders
      • High power distance
      • Knowledge of leader behavior was low
      • Only saw high level vision, not execution
      • Saw local leaders as task command & control