Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Centro de Filosofia das Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa January 15, 2008 Workshop2. Visual Displays of Information and the Practice of Science Pragmatic approaches. Valeria Giardino Università di Roma ‘La Sapienza’ Institut Jean Nicod email@example.com
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
January 15, 2008
Università di Roma ‘La Sapienza’
Institut Jean Nicod
“The primary mode of scientific representation for a logical empiricist is linguistic. [...]. This cognitive authority resonates in standard portraits of the relationships between technology and science”
A common way of describing it:
Two different sorts of linguistic entities
(ex. ‘pendulum’, ‘two-body Newtonian gravitational system’)
(ex. ‘The system earth moon is a Newtonian gravitational system’)
This way of formulating the statement and the model-based views still overemphasizes linguistic aspects.
The predicate ‘pendulum’, as it appears in classical mechanics, does not apply directly to real-world objects but to a family of idealized models.
real swinging weights
things sufficiently similar to the prototype to be classified as of that type
Representational devices: language, models, and objects in the real world.
The representational relationship is not the truth of a statement relative to the facts, or the applicability of a predicate to an object, but the similarity of a prototype to putative instances (two NON-LINGUISTIC entities)
A family of models of pendulums radiating out from the model of a simple pendulum
The sketch at the top is a particular embodiment of the abstract model of a simple pendulum
It too can serve as a prototype in judging the similarity of a particular real pendulum to the classical model
Scientists’s problem solving strategies and the representational practices developed over the course of history of science:
very sofisticated and refined outgrowths of ordinary reasoning and representational processes
Beyond the separation between the context of justification (philosophers) and context of discovery (historians and psychologists)
A new context : development
Dynamic processes (long period of time and social context) through which a vague speculation gets articulated into a new scientific theory, gests communicated to other scientists, and comes to replace existing representations of a domain.
Ultimate goal: to reconstruct scientific thinking by means of cognitive theories.
At present, cognitive theories are largely uninformed by scientific representational and problem-solving practices: the fit cognitive theories/scientific practices still to be determined!
Representational and constructive practices of scientists as part of the scientific method
Reasoning comprises more then algorithms
The new problem: how scientists, individually and collectively, combine their cognitive abilities (their biology)together with the acquired conceptual resources
Faraday's notebooks :
2-D pattern >> 3-D structure >> 4-D process >> inference or material derivation
Scientific illustration is customarily viewed as a form of art (supremacy of written words for recording and conveying information)
Only recently illustrations are studied as a means to convey information.
The work of the eighteenth-century Dutch artist and anatomist Petrus Camper.
His work on physical anthropology later formed the basis of craniometry and, in particular, the racist theory of the so-called facial angle.
Baigre (1996), Introduction of Picturing Knowledge
Giere (1996), Visual Models and Scientific Judgement
Gooding (2002), Visualization, Inference and Explanation in the Science
Kuhn (1962), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Nersessian (1996), How do Scientists think?
Topper (1996), Towards an Epistemology of Scientific Illustrations