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Searching for Habitable New Worlds and Life in the Universe. Hosted by Night Sky Network. Universal Laws of Biology ?. DNA. Intelligence. Liquid Water. Lawrence Hall of Science. The Only Known Site of Biology In the Universe. Is there life elsewhere in our Solar System?.

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Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

Searching for Habitable New Worlds

and

Life in the Universe

Hosted by

Night Sky Network


Universal laws of biology
Universal Laws of Biology ?

DNA

Intelligence

Liquid Water

Lawrence Hall of Science


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

The Only Known Site of Biology

In the Universe.

Is there life

elsewhere in our

Solar System?


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

Mars

Liquid Water

Impossible

Pressure

= 0.01 of Earth

. . . too low for

Liquid water.



Surface of jupiter s moon europa
Surface of Jupiter’s Moon: :Europa

Fractures in

Floating Ice

Icebergs


Jupiter s moon europa
Jupiter’s Moon:Europa

Sub-Crust

Ocean

.

.

.

.

Hydrogen-Carbon

compounds likely:

Amino acids

Life in the

Ocean?

First New Ocean

Since Balboa


The milky way galaxy

.

Now Exiting our Solar System to …

TheMilky Way Galaxy

. .

.

Meanwhile, we are hunting for abodes

Beyond our Solar System

.

.

. .

. .

.

.

.


The discovery of other

The Discovery of Other

Planetary Systems

& Implications

www.exoplanets.org

Collaborators:

Paul Butler,Debra Fischer, Steve Vogt

Chris Tinney, Greg Laughlin, Hugh Jones

Andrew Cumming, Greg Henry,

Jack Lissauer Jason Wright, Brad Carter,

Eugenio Rivera, Chris McCarthy, John Johnson


Planet detection
Planet Detection

Wobble of Star:

Gravitational pull

by the planet


Wobble velocity
WobbleVelocity

VPL2 =G MStar / rVPL ~ 10 km/s

VStar = VPLVSTAR~ 10 m/s

x(MPL /MJUP)

Energy Equipartition:

Momentum:

)

(

MPL

MSTAR


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

. . . Jupiter

12 years

(Meters/sec)

Need Telescope . . .


World s most successful planet search

1997 – Present

World’s most Successful Planet Search

Keck 1

Survey: 1300

Nearby Stars


Echelle spectrometer

High Resolution ``Echelle”

Starlight

From Telescope

Echelle Spectrometer

Spectrometer

CCD

Echelle

Grating

Collimator


Spectrum of star doppler effect
Spectrum of Star:Doppler Effect

Doppler Precision:

v / c ~ 10-9

Dl / l ~ 10-9

4096 Pixels


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

16 Cygni B

Mass = 1.7 MJUP (Min)

Not Sinusoidal

Orbit Period

Velocity

Wobble

2.2 yr




Life on gas giant planets
Life on Gas Giant Planets ?

?

Unlikely

Earth-Like Moon

Floaters


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

Mass = 0.62 MJUP

70 Days


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

Upsilon Andromedae:

Velocity Residuals


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

.

Upsilon Andromedae:

Triple Planet System

.

Planets have

No Names

.

2 MJUP

.

.

0.6 MJUP

.

4 MJup

.

.



Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

Gliese 876 d

Lowest Mass Exoplanet :

7.5 Earth-Masses

Per = 1.94 d

M = 7.5 MEarth

1.94 Days

5 m/s



7 5 earth mass planet orbiting gliese 876
7.5 Earth-Mass Planet Orbiting Gliese 876

Ring in Between:

Lukewarm

Tides:

One Planet Side

always Faces Star

Hot:

370 C

Cold:

-100 C


Milky way galaxy
Milky Way Galaxy

200 billion stars

~10% of all Stars

have detected planets.

20 Billion Planetary Systems

  • Detected so far:

  • Jupiter-mass

  • Saturn-mass

  • Neptune-mass

~ Earth-Mass ?


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

More Low-Mass

Planets

Planet Mass


Only known abode of life

Conclusion: Many Earth-mass Planets

Only Known Abode of Life

But are they

Habitable ?

Must Environments

Be “Just Right”

For Life ?


Yellowstone national park

One of the Least Hospitable Places on Earth:

Yellowstone National Park :

Suitable for Life ?

  • Boiling Geysers

  • Freezing winter

  • Sulfuric acid.


Yellowstone pinwheel geyser
YellowstonePinwheel Geyser

Near Boiling:

T ~ 80 C

Bacteria

Thrive

Each color

a different

species of

bacterium

Water: Acidic

as battery acid


Life at high temperature and high acidity

Yellowstone

Life at High Temperatureand High Acidity

Temp = 65 C

pH = 2


Yellowstone churning cauldron
YellowstoneChurning Cauldron

Boiling Temp


Yellowstone churning cauldron1
YellowstoneChurning Cauldron

Boiling Temp,

pH = 2

Algae

Bacteria &

Algae Thrive

Corrosion

pH = 2


Cyanidium calderium
Cyanidium Calderium

Life at

Extreme Temp

&

Extreme Acidity

Lives only at

T > 60 C


Extremophiles show that life
Extremophiles Show that Life

  • Tolerates heat or cold

  • Thrives in acidic or alkaline environments

  • Takes food from a variety of sources

  • Copes with Intense Solar Radiation - - or none!

Liquid Water Life

Primitive Life: Common in the Universe


Is our milky way galaxy teeming with intelligent life
Is our Milky Way GalaxyTeeming with Intelligent Life ?

  • Galaxy is

  • 10 Billion Years Old

  • - - - Twice the Age of Earth

  • 50% of Stars are

  • as Old as the Sun & Earth

  • Many stars & planets older by billions of years!

  • How Many Civilizations ?


Is our milky way teeming with intelligent life
Is our Milky Way Teemingwith Intelligent Life ?

  • 20 Billion

  • Planetary Systems:

  • 1/2 are older than Earth

  • What fraction have

  • Intelligent Life?

  • Pessimist: 1 in a Million

Advanced

There must be Thousands of Civilizations

In the Milky Way Galaxy. . .


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

.

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.


Where is everybody why didn t they come here
Where is Everybody?Why Didn’t They Come Here?

  • Moon: No Alien Spacecraft, Crash Debris, Obelisk

  • Mars: Same Story

  • Earth: Lovely Planet for 4 Billion Years . . .

    Yet, no Alien Settlement.

  • 100’s of Telescopes: No Alien Ships spotted

  • Night Sky: No Exotic Rocket Exhaust

  • No Robotic Probes Visit Solar System

  • SETI: No Radio Signals in 40 years.


Where is everybody
Where Is Everybody?

  • Hypothesis: - Thousands of Civilizations in Galaxy

    - Head Start of Billions of years.

    They should be Near!

  • Migration Throughout Galaxy:Easy with robotic spacecraft

    =================================================

  • Observation:No Aliens Detected, and no Traces.

  • Conclusion:Hypothesis possibly flawed.

    ( Ants eventually find your Kitchen)


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

Expect: 1000Civilizations

in 5 Billion Years

.

For Multiple Civilizations Today, Lifetimes Must Overlap:

Lifetime > 5 Million yr

How Long do

Technological

Civilizations Last?


Searching for habitable new worlds and life in the universe

February 5, 1996

  • Recipe for

  • Exobiology:

  • Planets

  • Chemicals

  • Water

  • Energy - - -

  • Stars, Tidal, Geothermal

Life:

Probably Common

in the Universe.

Primitive Life, at least


Seti ata proposed radio telescope array
SETIATA: Proposed Radio Telescope Array


Life in our milky way galaxy primitive life common intelligence rare
Life in our Milky Way Galaxy:Primitive Life: CommonIntelligence:Rare ?

Semi-Intelligent Life forms

..

Intelligence