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Hyperspectral Sensors Calibration, Operation and Maintenance. Jens Nieke , Daniel Schläpfer, Francesco Dell'Endice, Klaus Itten (RSL) Koen Meuleman (VITO) Michael Schaepman (WUR). Introduction. Calibration (cal/val) activities:

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hyperspectral sensors calibration operation and maintenance

HyperspectralSensorsCalibration, Operation and Maintenance

Jens Nieke, Daniel Schläpfer, Francesco Dell'Endice, Klaus Itten (RSL)

Koen Meuleman (VITO)

Michael Schaepman (WUR)

introduction
Introduction
  • Calibration (cal/val) activities:
    • Pre-launch (laboratory), in-flight and vicarious calibration, validation
    • Spectral, radiometric, spatial calibration
    • Higher product validation
introduction3
Introduction
  • Operations & Services:
    • Spaceborne sensors:
      • ESA operations center ESRIN (e.g., CHRIS)
      • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): EROS data center (e.g., HYPERION)
    • Airborne sensors: Vito, DLR, INTA, …
  • Maintenance :
    • Spaceborne sensors: no maintenance required
    • Airborne sensors: frequent maintenance recommended (combined with re-calibration activities)
hyperspectral sensors
Hyperspectral Sensors
  • Methodology of Sensor Calibration
    • Calibration of HYPERION / CHRIS
      • Pre-launch (TRW / SIRA)
      • Products: L1B, geocorrected
      • Calval not coordinated (except of WS)
    • Calibration of HYMAP
      • Pre-flight (however no visibility of calibration procedures)
      • Calval not coordinated
      • Validation Techniques at reference site Gilching
hyperspectral sensors5
Hyperspectral Sensors
  • Operations Boundary conditions
    • Operations of HYPERION/ CHRIS
      • Dedicated data facilities (USGS/ESRIN)
      • Request via help desks / web
        • FAST DATA DELIVERY!
    • Operations of Airborne Sensors (Vito, DLR, INTA..)
      • Call for Requests (long preparation time)
      • Availability of sensor/aircraft (summer season)
        • FEW months for data delivery
    • Maintenance of (airborne) sensors
      • Methods (cleaning lenses?)
      • Techniques (spare part services)
examples
Examples

Operational spaceborne sensors, with open calibration record and exemplary cal/val activities:

  • MODIS and SeaWiFS
    • Best documented data descriptions and open data distribution policy (extraordinary funding resources are available).
  • MERIS
    • Well documented data restricted to a selection of data products due to funding limitations.
examples7
Examples

Operations of MIVIS:

The instrument was delivered as commercial off-the shelf solution, without visibility to the internal preprocessing.

Scientific usability is restricted due to:

  • Unknown radiometric calibration stability/accuracy
  • Undocumented on-board processing routines (and no ability to switch off on-board processing).
examples8
Examples

Operations of AVIRIS:

for about 15 years, a team of ~10 people provided upgrades and calibration to the instrument. Calibration results were published in workshop proceedings.

High scientific value because of…

… very well known and accepted accuracy of the instrument. Open information and generous data policy.

developments
Developments

Example: APEX calibration methodology (SPIE paper*)

* Nieke, Kaiser, Schläpfer, Brazile, Itten, Strobl, Schaepman, Ulbrich, SPIE Vol. 5570 (2004)

developments10

APEX-CHB

APEX-IFC

Developments

Example: APEX calibration methodology (SPIE paper*)

* Nieke, Kaiser, Schläpfer, Brazile, Itten, Strobl, Schaepman, Ulbrich, SPIE Vol. 5570 (2004)

developments11
Developments

Challenges:

(1) meeting the accuracy requirements of the user community,

(2) the lack of standard methodologies for calibration and validation of hyperspectral methods and products, and

(3) reliable (comparable) higher-level data products.

Needs:

  • The introduction of standard methods and processing schemes
  • Hyperspectral data with known performance and error propagation
  • More efforts on data pre-processing, including ortho-rectification, atmospheric corrections and in-flight calibration.

=> Standard methods and processing schemes will also allow to compare higher-level data products in a better way.

discussion points
Discussion Points

Open Qs:

  • What are the minimum calibration requirements of end users?
  • Are the end users willing to pay more for better knowledge of calibration issues?
  • Who is able to provide independent system performance validation?
  • Is there a bigger market for cost-effective off-the shelf instruments (with less calibration information) ?
discussion points13
Discussion Points
  • Calibration of latest-generation hyperspectral sensors clearly requires new technological efforts:
    • Software: the complexity of data processing algorithms has created the need for improved computing infrastructure, and implies stronger requirements on memory/storage issues as well as advanced downlink and data transmission strategies.
    • Hardware: low-weight and low-power integrated components, along with calibration sources and fast electronics, are mandatory to reduce payload, data transmission overheads and satisfy other requirements in many planned and future Earth observing missions.
    • Reliable CalVal requires operational data retrieval (CalVal sites, ground-truth data) and processing.
discussion points14
Discussion Points
  • Operations & Services of latest-generation hyperspectral sensors clearly requires further efforts:
    • Fast delivery
    • User support
    • Additional data: quality flags, 3rd party data (ECMWF)
    • Further services: add-on modules, hotline
    • Automatic chain for standard products
    • Flexible exchange of research product codes
discussion points15
Discussion Points
  • Maintenance of latest-generation hyperspectral sensors clearly requires further efforts:
    • On-board data processing capabilities and programmability,
    • Standardization of laboratory calibration procedures,
    • Streamlined cross-calibration procedures for validation,
    • Sensor stability between calibration.