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By: Estefany Ramos Period 1. Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E. Geography on early Civilizations.

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by estefany ramos period 1
By: Estefany Ramos

Period 1

Chapter 1: From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations, 8000-1500 B.C.E
geography on early civilizations
Geography on early Civilizations
  • The earliest societies developed in the floodplains of great rivers in Asia and Africa: Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, Indus in Pakistan, Yellow River in China, and the Nile in Egypt.
  • The periodic flooding on the rivers brought benefits( deposits of fertile silt and water for agriculture) but threatened lives and property.
  • The climate made an impact of the crops.

Time-line: Mesopotamia

3000-2350 B.C.E

Early Dynastic ( Sumerian)

2112-2004 B.C.E Third Dynasty of Ur ( Sumerian)

1500-1150 B.C.E Kassite

1900-1600 B.C.C Old Babylonian ( Semitic)

2350-2230 B.C.E

Akkadian ( Semitic)


Time-Line: Egypt

2575- 2134 B.C.E Old Kingdom

2040-1640 B.C.E Middle Kingdom

1532-1070 B.C.E New Kingdom

3100-2575 B.C.E Early Dynastic

2134-2040 B.C.E First Intermediate Period

1640-1532- B.C.E Second Intermediate Period


Time-line: Indus Valley

2600 B.C.E Beginning of Indus Valley Civilization

1900 B.C.E End of Indus Valley Civilization

why they were called civilizations
Why they were called civilizations
  • Cities served as administrative centers
  • Had a political system on control of a defined territory rather than kinship connections
  • Monumental building
  • Major advances in science and technology
  • Long distance trade
  • System for keeping permanent records
  • Take out a piece of paper and match the following terms:

1. Paleolithic __

2. Foragers __

3. Neolithic __

a. hunting and food-gathering people

b. the New Stone Age, which was associated with the origins of agriculture, followed Old Stone Age.

c. the Old Stone Age, lasted until 10,000 years ago about 3,00 years after the last Ice Age

chapter 2 new civilizations in the eastern and western hemispheres 2200 250 b c e

Chapter 2: New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres 2200-250 B.C.E

By: Lyanne Danh

new civilizations
New Civilizations
  • China ( 2000 - 221 B.C.E )
  • Nubia ( 3100 B.C.E - 350 C.E )
  • Olmecs & Chavin ( 1200 - 250 B.C.E )
  • Eastern edge of Eurasian landmass
  • Neolithic cultures developed in 8000 B.C.E
  • 2nd millennium Shang & Zhou monarchs emerged and spread to the south and west
    • Such as Mesopotamia , Egypt, & Indus Valley
Rise of cities and specialized in labor, beuratic government and writing
  • Were isolated from the eastern hemisphere
  • Highly decentralized , made Great Wall, collected taxes & wrote the code of laws
  • Loess was a yellow - brownish dust that fell into the Yellow River giving it its name
  • Surrounded by mountains
    • Made transport , migration and communications difficult and slow
Shang and Zhou dynasties
    • Had pottery and forms of burials
    • Grew millet , raised pigs & chickens and used stone tools
    • Originated by the yellow river
    • Made silk with silk worms
    • Extended to the Yangzi river and into Mongolia
    • Barbarians were highly nomadic people
Prisoners turned into slaves
  • Bronze was a sign of nobility
  • Shang artisans made weapons
  • Spoke Mandarin & Cantonese & hieroglyphics were replaced by simpler alphabet
  • Used divination and lasted more than 6 centuries
Zhou had longest line of kings
  • King chose the next ruler
  • Gov’t officials and king were models of morality, fairness & concern for welfare of the people
  • Legalism - wealth and power of the state & demands for obedience were justified by authorian political philosophy
  • Confucianism - Confucius emphasized benevolence, avoidance of violence, justice, rationalism, loyalty & dignity
  • Daoism - Laozi emphasized to Follow your path
  • Applied to the Nile & Egyptians called it Ta-sety ( Land of the bow )
  • Served as a corridor for trade
  • Natural resources were gold, copper, and semiprecious stones
  • Got the name Kush
  • Kushite craftsmen were skillful metalworkers
  • Egyptians destroyed Kush by expansion
High ranking Egyptian officials called “ overseers of southern lands “ or “ King’s son of Kush “
  • Retained Egyptian language, culture & religion
  • 12OO B.C.E Collapsed
olmecs chavins
Olmecs & Chavins
  • Migrated from Asia as early as 3500-2500 B.C.E
  • Was in Mesoamerica
  • Armenians specialized in obsidian, quartz, jade and in indigenous plants and animals
  • Had a lot of diversity between plants and fishing
  • Early Adv in agriculture
  • Cultural core in San Lorenzo
La Venta most important olmec center & was destroyed in 600 B.C.E
  • High quality crafts & had a more diverse diet
  • Combination of religious and secular roles
  • Best known for their sculptures
  • Associates with Gods by human sacrifices and giving them their blood
Chavins had a more diverse environment
  • Located in the Andean region
  • Most impressive of South America’s earliest civilizations
  • Dominated dense populated regions
  • Located on the intersection of trade routes
Made roads, bridges, temples, palaces, large irrigation, drainage and textiles
  • Used llamas to move goods
  • Decorated buildings with serpents, condors , jaguars or human forms
  • Had a class system & influenced Andean regions for centuries