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Cosmic Acceleration and Dark Energy For Phy 262 Andreas Albrecht (based on various seminars and colloquia). Slides with a large blue box like this are outlines slides that still need to be updated (due to this slides set being combined from different talks). CONCLUSIONS

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Cosmic Acceleration and Dark Energy For Phy 262 Andreas Albrecht


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    1. Cosmic Acceleration and Dark Energy For Phy 262 Andreas Albrecht (based on various seminars and colloquia) PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    2. Slides with a large blue box like this are outlines slides that still need to be updated (due to this slides set being combined from different talks) PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    3. CONCLUSIONS • Cosmic acceleration has made life really exciting for the theorist • Hardly a closed case PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    4. CONCLUSIONS • Cosmic acceleration has made life really exciting for the theorist • Hardly a closed case PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    5. OUTLINE needs updating • The Basics: Data, Directions and Issues • Anthropics, Landscape & Critique • Alternative Viewpoints • Conclusions PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    6. OUTLINE • The Basics: Data, Directions and Issues • Anthropics, Landscape & Critique • Alternative Viewpoints • Conclusions  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    7. Cosmic acceleration Accelerating matter is required to fit current data Preferred by data c. 2003  Amount of w=-1 matter (“Dark energy”) “Ordinary” non accelerating matter Supernova  Amount of “ordinary” gravitating matter PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht (Includes Dark Matter)

    8. Cosmic acceleration Accelerating matter is required to fit current data Kowalski, et al., Ap.J.. (2008) Preferred by data c. 2008  Amount of w=-1 matter (“Dark energy”) “Ordinary” non accelerating matter BAO  Amount of “ordinary” gravitating matter PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht (Includes Dark Matter)

    9. Cosmic acceleration Accelerating matter is required to fit current data Suzuki, et al., Ap.J.. (2011) Preferred by data c. 2011  Amount of w=-1 matter (“Dark energy”) “Ordinary” non accelerating matter BAO  Amount of “ordinary” gravitating matter PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht (Includes Dark Matter)

    10. Cosmic acceleration Accelerating matter is required to fit current data Preferred by data c. 2003 “Ordinary” non accelerating matter Supernova PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht (Includes Dark Matter)

    11. Friedmann Eqn. PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    12. Friedmann Eqn. Scale factor Dark Energy Curvature Non-relativistic Matter Relativistic Matter PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    13. Friedmann Eqn. Scale factor Dark Energy Curvature Non-relativistic Matter Relativistic Matter PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    14. Friedmann Eqn. PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    15. Friedmann Eqn. PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    16. Positive acceleration requires • (unlike any known constituent of the Universe) or • a non-zero cosmological constant or • an alteration to General Relativity. PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    17. Positive acceleration requires • (unlike any known constituent of the Universe) or • a non-zero cosmological constant or • an alteration to General Relativity.  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    18. Positive acceleration requires • (unlike any known constituent of the Universe) or • a non-zero cosmological constant or • an alteration to General Relativity.  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    19. Positive acceleration requires • (unlike any known constituent of the Universe) or • a non-zero cosmological constant or • an alteration to General Relativity.  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    20. Two “familiar” ways to achieve acceleration: 1) Einstein’s cosmological constant and relatives 2) Whatever drove inflation: Dynamical, Scalar field? Positive acceleration requires • (unlike any known constituent of the Universe) or • a non-zero cosmological constant or • an alteration to General Relativity. PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    21. Two “familiar” ways to achieve acceleration: 1) Einstein’s cosmological constant and relatives 2) Whatever drove inflation: Dynamical, Scalar field? Positive acceleration requires • (unlike any known constituent of the Universe) or • a non-zero cosmological constant or • an alteration to General Relativity. PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    22. Some general issues: Numbers: • Today, • Field models typically require a particle mass of from PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    23. Some general issues: Numbers: • Today, • Field models typically require a particle mass of from Where do these come from and how are they protected from quantum corrections? PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    24. Some general issues: Numbers: • Today, • Field models typically require a particle mass of from Where do these come from and how are they protected from quantum corrections? PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    25. Some general issues A cosmological constant • Nice “textbook” solutions BUT • Deep problems/impacts re fundamental physics • Vacuum energy problem  = 10120 Vacuum Fluctuations   0 ? PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    26. Some general issues A cosmological constant • Nice “textbook” solutions BUT • Deep problems/impacts re fundamental physics • Vacuum energy problem (not resolved by scalar field models)  = 10120 Vacuum Fluctuations   0 ? PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    27. OUTLINE • The Basics: Data, Directions and Issues • Anthropics, Landscape & Critique • Alternative Viewpoints • Conclusions  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    28. OUTLINE • The Basics: Data, Directions and Issues • Anthropics, Landscape & Critique • Alternative Viewpoints • Conclusions  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    29. Anthropics and the value of Λ • Basic idea: • When Λ or radiation dominates the universe structure (i.e. galaxies) cannot form PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    30. Anthropics and the value of Λ • Basic idea: • When Λ or radiation dominates the universe structure (i.e. galaxies) cannot form Density Structure forming zone Time  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    31. Anthropics and the value of Λ • Basic idea: • When Λ or radiation dominates the universe structure (i.e. galaxies) cannot form Density Structure forming zone Time  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    32. Anthropics and the value of Λ • Basic idea: • When Λ or radiation dominates the universe structure (i.e. galaxies) cannot form Density Structure forming zone Time  PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    33. Anthropics and the value of Λ • Basic idea: • When Λ or radiation dominates the universe structure (i.e. galaxies) cannot form • Can we input that data that we have cosmic structure and predict the (very small) value of Λ? (Life?!) • To do this one requires: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” sufficiently PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    34. Anthropics and the value of Λ • Basic idea: • When Λ or radiation dominates the universe structure (i.e. galaxies) cannot form • Can we input that data that we have cosmic structure and predict the (very small) value of Λ? (Life?!) • To do this one requires: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” sufficiently • Weinberg used some simple choices for 1) and 2) and “predicted” a value of Λ in 1987 similar to the value discovered ~10 years later. • Since then string theorists have argued that the string theory landscape delivers a suitable ensemble of Λ’s (Bousso & Polchinski) PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    35. LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB Comment on how we use knowledge (“A” word!) Total knowledge about the universe Input Theory Output PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    36. LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB Comment on the “A” word: Total knowledge about the universe Input Theory Output PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    37. LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB Comment on the “A” word: Total knowledge about the universe Input Theory Output PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    38. LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB Comment on the “A” word: Total knowledge about the universe Input Theory Output PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    39. LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB PREDICTIONS Comment on the “A” word: Total knowledge about the universe Input Theory Output PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    40. PRED LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB The best science will use up less here and produce more here Input Theory Output PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    41. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    42. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    43. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis • These ingredients still not well developed in case of Λ anthropics: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” (or alternative condition) sufficiently PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    44. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis • These ingredients still not well developed in case of Λ anthropics: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” (or alternative condition) sufficiently Can get very different answers depending on how these ingredients are realized Banks, Dine & Motl PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    45. Can get very different answers depending on how these ingredients are realized • Use "entropy production weighting” (Causal Entropic Principle, Bousso et al) • Include variability of world lines due to cosmic structure • Two different behaviors for late time entropy production in halos Un-normalized probability density Phillips & Albrecht 2011 PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    46. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis • These ingredients still not well developed in case of Λ anthropics: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” (or alternative condition) sufficiently Can get very different answers depending on how these ingredients are realized Banks, Dine & Motl PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    47. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis • These ingredients still not well developed in case of Λ anthropics: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” (or alternative condition) sufficiently Can get very different answers depending on how these ingredients are realized Banks, Dine & Motl PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    48. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis • These ingredients still not well developed in case of Λ anthropics: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” (or alternative condition) sufficiently PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    49. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis • These ingredients still not well developed in case of Λ anthropics: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” (or alternative condition) sufficiently • In my view the string theory landscape is unlikely to survive as a compelling example of 1) PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht

    50. Further comments on anthropics: • Replace “life” with more humble “correlations” and one has a commonplace part of physics (non-controversial) • In my view 2nd law is most robust candidate for anthropic analysis • These ingredients still not well developed in case of Λ anthropics: • A theory with an ensemble of values of Λ • A way to quantify “having structure” (or alternative condition) sufficiently • In my view the string theory landscape is unlikely to survive as a compelling example of 1) Eternal inflation PHY 262 Dark Energy; A. Albrecht