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Hadron Production Measurements. presented by Giles Barr, Oxford ICRR-Kashiwa December 2004. Hadron production needed for understanding . Neutrino beams spectrum, composition. Neutrino Factories optimisation of pion collection. Extensive Air Showers

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Hadron production measurements l.jpg

Hadron Production Measurements

presented by Giles Barr, Oxford

ICRR-Kashiwa

December 2004


Slide2 l.jpg

Hadron production needed for understanding ...

Neutrino beams

spectrum, composition

Neutrino

Factories

optimisation of

pion collection

Extensive Air Showers

muon component, energy determination


Atmospheric neutrinos l.jpg

Primary cosmic ray

π

N

N

π

K

ν

μ

Atmospheric Neutrinos


Outline l.jpg
Outline

Section 1: Introduction

Section 2: NA49

  • Experiment

  • Data taking

  • Errors and corrections

    Section 3: Other experiments

  • HARP

  • E910,MIPP


Slide5 l.jpg

Summary of measurements available

10

Boxes show importance of phase space region for contained atmospheric neutrino events.

Daughter energy

1 TeV

100

10

1 GeV

1 GeV

10

100

1 TeV

10

Parent energy


Slide6 l.jpg

10

SPY

Atherton et. al.

Daughter energy

Barton et. al.

1 TeV

Serpukov

Allaby et. al.

Eichten et. al.

100

Cho et. al.

Abbott et. al.

10

1 GeV

1 GeV

10

100

1 TeV

Parent energy

Existing measurements

Boxes show importance of phase space region for contained atmospheric neutrino events.

Existing measurements.

10


Slide7 l.jpg

10

Daughter energy

1 TeV

100

10

1 GeV

1 GeV

10

100

1 TeV

10

Parent energy

PT range covered

Boxes show importance of phase space region for contained atmospheric neutrino events.

SPY

Atherton et. al.

Barton et. al.

Serpukov

Allaby et. al.

Eichten et. al.

Cho et. al.

Abbott et. al.

Measurements.

1-2 pT points

3-5 pT points

>5 pT points


Slide8 l.jpg

10

Daughter energy

1 TeV

100

10

1 GeV

1 GeV

10

100

1 TeV

10

Parent energy

New measurements

Boxes show importance of phase space region for contained atmospheric neutrino events.

MIPP

NA49

HARP

New measurements.


Another view minos l.jpg
Another view (MINOS)...

Atherton

400 GeV Be

Barton

100 GeV C

Spy

450 GeV Be

Plot courtesy of M. Messier


Na20 atherton et al cern sps 1980 l.jpg
NA20 (Atherton et al.), CERN-SPS (1980)

  • H2 beam line in the SPS north-area

  • Secondary energy scan: 60,120,200,300 GeV

  • Overall quoted errors

    • Absolute rates: ~15%

    • Ratios: ~5%


Needs l.jpg
Needs...

  • Pion and kaon production

  • Projectile: p, He, π, K etc.

  • Very large range of primary energies [2 GeV,>1 TeV]

  • Target: Air nuclei (nearby isoscalar nuclei acceptable)

  • Full phase space coverage

  • pT distribution not interesting

  • Full coverage of pT important

Importance of kaons at high energy

(Thanks to S. Robbins for plot)



Na49 experimental layout l.jpg
NA49 experimental layout

Vertex TPCs

Main TPCs

Target

S4 counter

Gap TPC


Slide14 l.jpg


Na49 proton carbon run l.jpg
NA49 Proton-Carbon run

  • ‘P322 group’ consisting of some atmospheric neutrino flux calculators, HARP experimentalists and MINOS experimentalists formed collaboration with NA49 and proposed a series of measurements.

  • Received a 1 week test run with a carbon target.

  • It took place in June 2002.

    • 158 GeV run, 500k triggers.

    • 100 GeV run, 160k triggers.

    • 1% interaction length carbon target.

    • Proton selected beam (using Cerenkov).

    • TPCs, HCAL, CD, no TOF.

  • Immediately preceeding run was an NA49 proton-proton run, using a liquid hydrogen target.


Beam line l.jpg
Beam line

  • Cerenkov CEDAR counters

  • Beam chambers

  • Trigger S1-S3

  • S4 veto


Slide17 l.jpg

Main TPC

Left

Vertex TPC 1

B=1.7T

Vertex TPC 2

B=1.7T

Gap

TPC

Main TPC

Right


Na49 de dx plots l.jpg

Particle ID

NA49 dE/dx plots

dE/dx plot for positives

P (GeV)


Na49 de dx fits l.jpg

Particle ID

NA49 dE/dx fits


Slide20 l.jpg
Bins

Technique:

Follow closely the analysis of p-p data

xF and pT bins

Some corrections are identical

Pion analysis


Slide21 l.jpg

  • Analysis:

    • Get pion yields for proton-proton,

    • followed by pion yields for proton-carbon

    • Later, do kaons, antiprotons.

  • Pion extraction straightforward

    • shifts and resolution easy to determine

    • Above xF = 0.5, dE/dx information not available near gap. We do have the track distributions.

    • Particular region at low xF where π and p dE/dx curves overlap. Use reflection in p-p.

    • Almost no information at negative xF



Prospects l.jpg

Pions for proton-proton available shortly.

Pions for proton-carbon follow rapidly after this.

Some atmospheric specific changes can be made

Use XLAB

Feed down required ?

Kaon yields is next priority

Extraction not too bad in positives – NK not strongly correlated to K-peak position.

Challenge at high xF in negatives.

Prospects



Slide25 l.jpg

The Harp detector: Large Acceptance, PID Capabilities , Redundancy

Threshold gas

Cherenkov:

p identification

at large Pl

TOF:

p identification

in the low Pl

and low Pt

region

Drift Chambers:

Tracking and low

Pt spectrometer

EM filter (beam

muon ID and

normalization)

Target-Trigger

0.7T solenoidal coil

Drift Chambers:

Tracking

TPC, momentum

and PID (dE/dX)

at large Pt

1.5 T dipole spectrometer


Harp experiment l.jpg
HARP Experiment

  • Beam 3-15 GeV protons, CERN PS

  • Collected data 2001, 2002

  • Secondary hadron yields

    • Beam momenta

    • As a function of momentum and angle of daughter particles

    • For different daughter particles

  • As close as possible to full acceptance

  • The aim is to provide measurements with few % overall precision

  •  efficiencies must be kept under control, down to the level of 1%

    • primarily trough the use of redundancy from one detector to another

  • Thin, thick and cryogenic targets LH2, LD2, LO2 LN2 Be, C, Al, Cu, Tn, Sn, Pb

  • T9 secondary beam line on the CERN PS allows a 215 GeV energy range

  • O(106) events per setting

    • A setting is defined by a combination of target type and material, beam energy and polarity

  • Fast readout

    • Aim at ˜103 events/PS spill, one spill=400ms. Event rate ˜ 2.5KHz

    • Corresponds to some 106 events/day

    •  Very demanding (unprecedented!) for the TPC.


Beam particle identification l.jpg
Beam Particle Identification

p

Beam Time Of Flight (TOF):

separate p/K/p at low energy

over 21m flight distance

  • time resolution 170 ps after TDC and ADC equalization

  • proton selection purity >98.7%

p

3.0 GeV/c beam

K

d

12.9 GeV/c (K2K) Beam

p/d

p

Beam Cherenkov:

Identify electrons at low energy, p

at high energy, K above 12 GeV

  • ~100% eff. in e-p tagging

K

Cherenkov ADC


Forward pid tof wall l.jpg
Forward PID: TOF Wall

Separate p/p (K/p) at low momenta (0–4.5 GeV/c)

  • 42 slabs of fast scintillator read at both ends by PMTs

TOF time resolution ~160 ps

3s separation:p/p up to 4.5 GeV/c

K/p up to 2.4 GeV/c

 7s separation of p/p at 3 GeV/c

3 GeV beam particles

PMT

data

p

Scintillator

p


Pion yield k2k thin target l.jpg
Pion yield: K2K thin target

5%l Al target (20mm)

Use K2K thin target (5%l)

  • To study primary p-Al interaction

  • To avoid absorption / secondary interactions

K2K replica (650mm)

p > 0.2 GeV/c

|y | < 50 mrad

25 < |x| < 200 mrad

Raw data

2

4

6

8

10

-200

-100

0

100

200

0

qx(mrad)

P(GeV/c)

p-e/p misidentification

background


Slide30 l.jpg

Y. Fisyak

Brookhaven National Laboratory

R. Winston

EFI, University of Chicago

M.Austin,R.J.Peterson

University of Colorado, Boulder,

E.Swallow

Elmhurst College and EFI

W.Baker,D.Carey,J.Hylen, C.Johnstone,M.Kostin, H.Meyer, N.Mokhov, A.Para, R.Raja,S. Striganov

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

G. Feldman, A.Lebedev, S.Seun

Harvard University

P.Hanlet, O.Kamaev,D.Kaplan, H.Rubin,N.Solomey, C.White

Illinois Institute of Technology

U.Akgun,G.Aydin,F.Duru,Y.Gunyadin,Y.Onel, A.Penzo

University of Iowa

N.Graf, M. Messier,J.Paley

Indiana University

P.D.BarnesJr.,E.Hartouni,M.Heffner,D.Lange,R.Soltz, D.Wright

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

R.L.Abrams,H.R.Gustafson,M.Longo, H-K.Park, D.Rajaram

University of Michigan

A.Bujak, L.Gutay,D.E.Miller

Purdue University

T.Bergfeld,A.Godley,S.R.Mishra,C.Rosenfeld,K.Wu

University of South Carolina

C.Dukes, H.Lane,L.C.Lu,C.Maternick,K.Nelson,A.Norman

University of Virginia

~50 people, 11 graduates students, 11 postdocs.


Mipp physics program l.jpg

Particle Physics-To acquire unbiased high statistics data with complete particle id coverage for hadron interactions.

Study non-perturbative QCD hadron dynamics, scaling laws of particle production

Investigate light meson spectroscopy, pentaquarks, glueballs

Nuclear Physics

Investigate strangeness production in nuclei- RHIC connection

Nuclear scaling

Propagation of flavor through nuclei

Netrinos related Measurements

Atmospheric neutrinos – Cross sections of protons and pions on Nitrogen from 5 GeV- 120 GeV (5,15,25,5070,90) GeV

Improve shower models in MARS, Geant4

Make measurements of production of pions for neutrino factory/muon collider targets

MINOS target measurements – pion production measurements to control the near/far systematics

Complementary with HARP at CERN

MIPP :Physics Program


Slide32 l.jpg
E910 with complete particle id coverage for hadron interactions

  • Note added after end of talk:

    • The nw BNL measurements with the E910 experiment have been reported by J. Link at NuFact 2004 in WG2


Summary l.jpg
Summary with complete particle id coverage for hadron interactions

HARP 3-15 GeV at CERN PS

MIPP 5-120 GeV at FNAL MI

NA49 100,160 GeV at SPS


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