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Guangala Unearthed

Guangala Unearthed

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Guangala Unearthed

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  1. Guangala Unearthed Use-wear Analysis & Experimental Archaeology in a Study of Ecuadorian Artifacts 1. Figurina Antropomorfa Sedente [Internet]. 2007 June 15. Ecuador - Guayaquil. MAAC; [Cited 2008 30 July]. Available from: http://picasaweb.google.com/alfredo.campos/EcuadorGuayaquilMAAC/photo#5076828756071446578 1 Stephanie Bohaczuk, Doris Chen, Raj Dave, Christopher Geissler, Shriya Kaneriya, Zachary Maher, Marie Smithgall, Meghan Sosnowski, Peiyi Su, Joanna Venator, Lucas Zavala Advisor: Maria Masucci Assistant: Alison Koser

  2. Past vs. Present • Past • Morphological • Lack of scientific methodology • Roots in humanities • New technology • Present 1 • Experimental • Archaeometry 1. Sutton MQ and Yohe Robert. 2007. Archaeology: The Science of the Human Past, 3/E. Bakersfield (CA): Prentice Hall. Pg. 65-66.

  3. Our Objectives • Apply scientific method to Guangala artifacts • Three main artifact groups • Shells • Ceramics • Stones • Three main techniques • Microscopic analysis • Experimental replication • Use-wear studies

  4. GUANGALA PHASE (500 B.C.-A.D.800) 1 A • 1. Marcos JG. 1986. A Brief Prehistory of Ecuador. Quito (Ecuador): Corporación Editora Nacional • 2. Ecuador Map [Internet]. [Updated 2006 December 11]. Washington D.C., US Central Intelligence Agency. [cited 2008 July 30]. Available from: http://www.geographicguide.net/america/ecuador.htm 2

  5. BACKGROUND- CULTURE • Agriculture1 • Trade Marcos JG. 1986. A Brief Prehistory of Ecuador. Quito (Ecuador): Corporación Editora Nacional Anderson G. 2007. Marine Science. [Internet]. Santa Barbara, CA: [cited 2008 Jul 28]. Available from http://www.marinebio.net/marinescience/06future/ 2

  6. The Experiments.Can the markings on the artifacts tell us something about their past?

  7. SHELL ARTIFACTS OBSERVED So are all the striations a result of object use-wear or of natural processes? Artifact S1: Found at shell-working site Artifact S2: Found with burnt trash heap Magnification 5x Magnification 5x

  8. Experimental Shell Before Polishing Comparing Polished Edges Original Artifact S1 Experimental Shell After Polishing Magnification 5x Magnification 5x

  9. Comparing Edges After Use Experimental Shell After Use on Manioc Experimental Shell After Use on Oak Magnification 5x Magnification 5x

  10. SHELL: DISCUSSION • Ineffective tool • Shell burnt • Natural growth rings vs. man-made striations1 • Raw material valuable • Ceremonial and/or monetary by experimentation2, 3 • Anderson G. 2007. Marine Science. [Internet]. Santa Barbara, CA: [cited 2008 Jul 28]. Available from http://www.marinebio.net/marinescience/06future/ • Morris PA. 1966. A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Shells. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 258. • Marcos JG. 1986. A Brief Prehistory of Ecuador. Quito (Ecuador): Corporación Editora Nacional

  11. CERAMICS: ROUND SHERDS Replica Original Magnification 5x

  12. CERAMICS: TOOLS 1 1. López Varela SL, van Gijn A, Jacobs L. 2002. De-mystifying Pottery Production in the Maya Lowlands: Detection of Traces of Use-Wear on Pottery Sherds through Microscopic Analysis and Experimental Replication. Journal of Archaeological Science [Internet]. [cited 2008 Jul 28]; 29(10): 1133-1147. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WH8-46FS8RH-4/1/b5d45c7b4e9f23e5b83d6f3a4ca41b1fc Before After Magnification 5x Magnification 5x

  13. Magnification 5x Magnification 5x

  14. STONE “AXES” • Sharpened against sandstone • Experimented • Scraping • Slicing • Chopping • Analyze under stereoscope

  15. MANIOC

  16. BEFORE AFTER MANIOC Magnification 10x Magnification 10x

  17. MANIOC EXPERIMENTAL ACTUAL Magnification 10x Magnification 10x

  18. WOOD

  19. BEFORE WOOD AFTER Magnification 10x Magnification 10x

  20. WOOD EXPERIMENTAL ACTUAL Magnification 10x Magnification 10x

  21. ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONCLUSIONS • Application of science to archaeology • MAIN IDEA: move past morphology into experimentation

  22. Guangala and Ecuador • Complex Society • Trading • Resourceful • Agricultural • Politics • Foresting policy • Ethnic pride • Meggers BJ. 1966. Ancient Peoples and Places: Ecuador. New York (NY): Frederick A. Praeger. p. 14-119.

  23. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Schering-Plough Foundation Novartis The Dorr Foundation The Jennifer A. Chalsty Foundation The Edward W. and Stella C. Van Houten Memorial Fund The Jewish Communal Fund Laura and John Overdeck Dr. Masucci Ms. Alison Koser Dr. Miyamoto Dr. Quinn Ms. Myrna Papier

  24. QUESTIONS?