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Electromagnetics (ENGR 367). Magnetic Materials & Magnetization. Introduction. Question: Why do some materials respond to magnetic fields, while others do not? Answer: Magnetic materials have a property known as Magnetization as quantified in the relative permeability constant (  r ).

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Electromagnetics engr 367

Electromagnetics(ENGR 367)

Magnetic Materials & Magnetization


  • Question: Why do some materials respond to magnetic fields, while others do not?

  • Answer: Magnetic materials have a property known as Magnetization as quantified in the relative permeability constant (r).

Description of magnetic material properties
Description of Magnetic Material Properties

  • For accurate quantitative prediction: Quantum Theory is required

  • For qualitative description:

    Orbital Mechanics Model suffices

Orbital mechanics model
Orbital Mechanics Model

  • Atom has electrons that orbit around its nucleus making a miniature current loop that results in an orbital magnetic moment

  • Electron spins around its own axis to produce a significant spin magnetic moment

Orbital mechanics model1
Orbital Mechanics Model

  • The relative contribution of the magnetic moments of each atom and the molecular makeup of a material classifies it as

    • Diamagnetic

    • Paramagnetic

    • Ferromagnetic

    • Antiferromagnetic

    • Ferrimagnetic

    • Superparamagnetic

  • Any atom with a magnetic moment in the presence of an applied magnetic field will experience a torque that tends to align it


  • Definition:

    a region within a ferromagnetic material having a large dipole moment due to collections of associated atoms with uncompensated spin moments

  • Shape, size & direction of moment:

    varies between neighboring regions within a crude sample that cancels the effect overall

See also magnetic dipole moments and domains of ferromagnetic materials as illustrated in Fig. 3.36 WW pp. 139, 140.

Alignment of magnetic domains


may be achieved by an applied magnetic field

Upon removal of the external magnetic field, domains do not all return to their original state and thus exhibit a magnetic history known as hysteresis (an interesting & practical effect unique to ferromagnetic materials)

Examples: Ferromagnetic elements & compounds

Fe, Ni, Co, BiMn, CuMnSn, etc.

Alignment of Magnetic Domains

See also nonlinear Magnetization curve in Fig. 3.37 WW p. 141

Other examples of magnetic materials each class
Other Examples of Magnetic Materials Each Class

Qualitative summary of magnetic material properties
Qualitative Summary of Magnetic Material Properties

Applications of magnetic materials
Applications of Magnetic Materials

  • Ferromagnetic Materials: Permanent Magnets, Magnetic Data Storage, etc.

  • Ferrimagnetic Materials: Ferrites commonly used for transformer and/or toroid cores due to their higher resistance that reduces eddy currents that cause ohmic loss

  • Superparamagnetic: used to create recording tape for audio or video application

Magnetization quantified
Magnetization Quantified

  • Approach: define Amperian (bound) current

    • Associated with bound charges of electrons in atoms locked into lattice structure of a material

    • Magnetic dipole moment of each individual charge

    • For n dipoles per unit volume

    • Magnetization: magnetic dipole moment per unitvol.

Bound versus free current forms of a c l
Bound versus Free Current Forms of A.C.L.

  • Mathematic Expressions:

    Bound versus Free

  • Note:

    Ib depends on the number and alignment of the miniature magnetic dipoles along the closed path

Bound free currents combined
Bound & Free Currents Combined

  • Total Current

  • Free Current

  • General Relation for B versus H

Linear isotropic magnetic media e g paramagnetic diamagnetic
Linear Isotropic Magnetic Media(e.g., paramagnetic, diamagnetic)

  • Magnetization

  • Magnetic Flux Density

Nonlinear anisotropic materials e g ferromagnetic
Nonlinear & Anisotropic Materials(e.g., ferromagnetic)

  • If magnetization (M) responds nonlinearly to an imposed magnetic field (H) such as for a ferromagnetic polycrystalline material

    • relation still applies, but. . .

    • the parameters m and r will not be constant material properties since H vs. M is nonlinear

  • If linear and homogeneous, but anisotropic as for a ferromagnetic single crystal then

Example of magnetization calculation
Example of Magnetization Calculation

  • Exercise 3 (D9.6, Hayt & Buck, 7/e,p. 281):

    • Find:

    • Given:


Example of magnetization calculation1
Example of Magnetization Calculation

  • Exercise 3 (continued)

    • Find:

    • Given:


Example of magnetization calculation2
Example of Magnetization Calculation

  • Exercise 3 (continued)

    • Find:

    • Given:



  • Forces on moving charge in a magnetic field may result in

    • Forces on current carrying conductors

    • Torques on current loops

  • Magnetization results from miniature bound current loops of electrons with

    • Orbital magnetic moments

    • Spin magnetic moments


  • Different classes of materials exist, some have weaker and some stronger magnetic effects

  • The permeability constant () indicates the magnetization and magnetic effects of a linear, isotropic material

  • Some ferromagnetic materials have practical nonlinear or anisotropic effects

  • Applications of magnetic materials include: permanent magnets, data storage, motors, generators, transformer/toroid cores, etc.


  • Hayt & Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics, 7th edition, McGraw Hill: New York, 2006.

  • Wentworth, Fundamentals of Electromagnetics with Engineering Applications, John Wiley & Sons: 2005.