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Mid-19c European Nationalism

Mid-19c European Nationalism. The Crimean War [1854-1856]. Russia [claimed protectorship over the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire]. Ottoman Empire Great Britain France Piedmont-Sardinia. The Crimean War [1854-1856]. Treaty of Paris [1856].

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Mid-19c European Nationalism

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  1. Mid-19c European Nationalism

  2. The Crimean War [1854-1856] Russia[claimed protectorship over the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire] Ottoman Empire Great Britain France Piedmont-Sardinia

  3. The Crimean War [1854-1856]

  4. Treaty of Paris [1856] • No Russian or Ottoman naval forces on the Black Sea. • All the major powers agreed to respect the political integrity of the Ottoman Empire.

  5. Italian Unification

  6. Italian Nationalist Leaders King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Garibaldi[The “Sword”] Giuseppi Mazzini[The “Heart”] Count Cavour[The “Head”]

  7. Pope Pius IX: The “Spoiler”?

  8. Garibaldi Defends Rome Against the French, (April 30, 1849)

  9. Sardinia-Piedmont: The “Magnet” Italian unification movement:Risorgimento [“Resurgence”]

  10. Step #1: Carbonari Insurrections:1820-1821 “Coalmen.”

  11. Step #2: Piedmont-Sardinia Sends Troops to the Crimea What does Piedmont-Sardinia get in return?

  12. Step #3: Cavour & Napoleon III Meet at Plombières, 1858 What “deals” are made here?

  13. Step #4: Austro-Sardinian War,1859

  14. Step #5: Austro-Prussian War,1866 Austria loses control of Venetia. Venetia is annexed to Italy.

  15. Step #6: Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour

  16. Step #7: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870 Italy is united!

  17. A Unified Peninsula! A contemporary British cartoon, entitled "Right Leg in the Boot at Last," shows Garibaldi helping Victor Emmanuel put on the Italian boot.

  18. The Kingdom of Italy: 1871 What problems still remain for Italy?

  19. German Unification

  20. Zollverein, 1834

  21. Prussia/Austria Rivalry

  22. Key Players

  23. Kaiser Wilhelm I

  24. Helmut von Moltke

  25. Chancellor Otto von Bismarck The “IronChancellor” Realpolitik “Blood&Iron”

  26. Otto von Bismarck . . . . The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night. Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied. The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of 1848-1849—but by blood and iron.

  27. Otto von Bismarck . . . . I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made. A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one. Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.

  28. TheGermanConfederation

  29. Step #1: The Danish War[1864] The Peace ofVienna

  30. Step #2: Austro-Prussian War[Seven Weeks’ War], 1866 Prussia Austria

  31. Step #3: Creation of the Northern German Confederation, 1867 Shortly following the victory of Prussia, Bismarck eliminated the Austrian led German Confederation. He then established a new North German Confederation which Prussia could control  Peace of Prague

  32. Step #4: Ems Dispatch [1870]:Catalyst for War 1868 revolt in Spain. Spanish leaders wantedPrince Leopold von Hohenz.[a cousin to the Kaiser & aCatholic], as their new king. France protested & his name was withdrawn. The Fr. Ambassador asked the Kaiser at Ems to apologize to Nap. III for supporting Leopold. Bismarck “doctored” the telegram from Wilhelm to the French Ambassador to make it seem as though the Kaiser had insulted Napoleon III.

  33. Step #5: Franco-Prussian War[1870-1871] German soldiers “abusing” the French.

  34. Step #4: Franco-Prussian War[1870-1871]

  35. Bismarck & Napoleon III After Sedan

  36. Treaty of Frankfurt [1871] The Second French Empire collapsed and was replaced by the Third French Empire. The Italians took Rome and made it their capital. Russia put warships in the Black Sea [in defiance of the 1856 Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War]. ------------------- France paid a huge indemnity and was occupied by German troops until it was paid. France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Germany [a region rich in iron deposits with a flourishing textile industry].

  37. Coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm I[r. 1871–1888]

  38. Prussian Junkers Swear Their Allegiance to the Kaiser

  39. German Imperial Flag German for “Empire.”

  40. Bismarck Manipulatingthe Reichstag

  41. Bismarck’s Kulturkampf:Anti-Catholic Program Take education and marriage out of the hands of the clergy  civil marriages only recognized. The Jesuits are expelled from Germany. The education of Catholic priests would be under the supervision of the German government.

  42. Bismarck’s ReapproachmentWith the Catholic Church Bismarck & Pope Leo XIII

  43. Kaiser Wilhelm II [r. 1888-1918]

  44. Queen Victoria’s Grandchildren

  45. “DroppingthePilot”[1890]

  46. Kaiser Wilhelm II

  47. Eastern Europe in the Last Half of the 19c

  48. Differing Nationalities in theAustrian Empire

  49. Austrian Imperial Flag

  50. Emperor Franz Josef I[r. 1848-1916]

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