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语言知识运用试题 命题技术探讨

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  1. 语言知识运用试题 命题技术探讨 江西省教育厅教研室 温爱英 2007 西安

  2. 对语言知识的考查目标 • 《英语课程标准》就终结性评价提出的评价原则是:“终结性评价要注重考查学生综合运用语言的能力”。其中,语言知识的运用能力是指学生在一定的语境中运用语音知识、语法知识、词汇知识和语用知识的能力。对语言知识的考查不能在脱离语境的情况下孤立地进行,特别是不能机械地考查对于某些知识点的记忆。

  3. 英语测试的主要标准 • 英语测试是检测学生综合语言运用能力发展程度的重要途径。好的语言测试一般应具有五个特征:有效性(validity)、可靠性(reliability)、区分性(discrimination)、实用性(feasibility)和教育性,即良好的反拨作用(backwash effect)。 • 效度,亦称有效性,或者说,在多大程度上,是为了目的所要考的(李筱菊,1997:49)。 • 信度是指语言测试结果的一致性程度。信度包括三个方面:测试本身的信度、受试在不同情况下的表现以及评分的信度。

  4. 四个要素之间的关系 • 项目 主观性测试 客观性测试 • ( Item ) ( Subjective ) ( Objective ) • 效度(Validity) 更高(Higher) 更低(Lower) • 信度(Reliability)更低(Lower) 更高(Higher) • 可行性 可行性更小 可行性更大 • ( Practicality) ( Less practical) ( More practical) • 反拨作用 更积极的 更负面的 • (Backwash effect) ( More positive) ( Less positive)

  5. 三种题型:单项选择、完形填空、 • 填空题

  6. 一、单项选择试题的命制技术

  7. (一)关于题干 • 1、题干应有一定的语境。 • 2、题干中语言的难易程度应该与考生水平相适应。 • 3、题干越简洁越好。 • 1. The teacher made the students write the text after school. • 2. What an interesting story! • 3. ---Do you often go to those big concerts? • ---Sometimes. I like listening to CDs better. • 4. When you talk with others, try to talk about something they are • interested in. • 5. ---It’s reported that the 29th Olympic torch(奥运火炬) is going to travel • to 135 cities around the world. • ---______ exciting the news is! And it will arrive at the opening • ceremony (开幕式) on August 8th, 2008. • A. What B. How C. What an

  8. (二)关于考点 • 1、要科学、合理地设计考点,每道单项选择题一般只考查一个语言点。 • 2、考试目标要明确,不应该考查语言知识以外的内容。 • 3、要考查学生根据情景(上下文)的判断推理能力。 • 1. ---I went to New York. • ---Did you? • ---Yes, I’ve just come back. • 2. ---Have you heard of the accident about Lucy and • her father? • ---Accident? No, I haven’t. Tell me about it.

  9. (三)关于选项 • 1、要保证答案没有争议。 • 2、每个选择项放到题干里去时必须合乎语法。 • 3、选项本身在语法和形式上应该是正确的。 • 4、选项长度要适当、均衡。 • 1. Don’t ______ too much TV. It’s bad for your eyes. • A. watch B. watched C. watching D. to watch • 2. ---Whose notebook is it? • ---It belongs to Lily. Didn’t you see ______ name on it? • A. she B. her C. hers • 3. ---Few well-known singers came to the concert, did they? • ---______. Such as Andy Lau, Jay zhou and Kristy Zhang. • A. No, they didn’t B. Yes, they did • C. No, they did D. Yes, they didn’t

  10. 1.--- I hit a tree on the way to meet my • friend at the railway station. • --- I suppose you ______ too fast. • A. drive B. are driving • B. drove D. were driving • 2.---My God! I’m nearly lost in this city. • ---Yeah. The city ______ a lot. • A. changed B. has changed • C. is changing D. will change

  11. 二、完形填空试题的命制技术 • 完形填空可以综合考查学生对各方面语言知识的灵活运用能力。这种题型要求学生根据上下文线索补充所缺的单词,既可以考查学生对单词搭配、习惯用法、语法结构的掌握情况,又可以考查学生的语篇理解和逻辑推理能力。

  12. 完形填空有三种具体的形式: • 1、试题为每个空白处提供若干个选项,学生从中选择一 • 项最合适的作为正确答案。 • 2、试题将需要补全的单词打乱顺序后集中列在一个方框 • 里,供学生填空时挑选。 • 3、试题不提供任何选项或需要补全的单词,学生根据首 • 字母提示或自己的判断填写他们认为合适的单词。

  13. (一)选材要求(三种方式相同) • 1、所选短文应该主旨明确,大意清楚,有较好的 • 连贯性。 • 2、材料应语言难度适当,内容为考生所熟悉。 • 3、选文不应过长或过短。 • 4、空白之间的间距要适当。

  14. (二)考点的设置(三种方式相同) • 1、不宜在短文首句和末句挖空。 • 2、所删的词语在文段中确实有上下文线索,使考生能依据 • 这些线索进行推断。 • 3、不宜把语言知识以外的其他知识作为考查的重点。 • 4、设计考点时一定要避免某题的答案出现在文章的其他地方。 • 5、试题所涉及的各类考点应均衡分布。 • 6、选择考点应侧重从语言的意义考虑,而不能一味地考查语法形式或句子结构。

  15. (三)选项的设置(第一种方式) • 1、答案应没有争议性。 • 2、正确选项与干扰项词性要相同。 • 3、干扰项本身就形式而言也能填入所设的空中。 • 4、干扰项对正确答案要有干扰作用。

  16. Music and Behavior • Where did you go yesterday?Did you hear music at any of those places?Today most stores and restaurants play music. You might even hear music in an office or on a farm. • Scientists believe that music changes the way people behave. According to some scientists, the sound of western classical music makes people feel richer. When a restaurant plays classical music, people spend more money on food and drinks. When the restaurant plays modern music, people spend less money. With no music, people spend even less. • Scientists also believe that loud, fast music makes people eat faster. In fact, people eat their food faster when the music gets faster. Some restaurants play fast music during their busy hours. This gets people to eat faster and leave quickly. Restaurants can make more money thisway. • Some scientists think that music makes you think and learn better. They say that music helps students to be more active. It is true that people learn better when they are relaxed. And listening to music can help you relax. • The next time you hear music somewhere, be careful. It might change the way you do things.

  17. 41.A.music B. stories C. songs D. sound • 42.A.already B. even C. hardly D. never • 43.A.way B. time C. idea D. place • 44.A.become B. get C. feel D. look • 45.A.much B. more C. little D. less • 46.A.pop B. modern C. light D. country • 47.A.no B. much C. any D. some • 48.A.think B. hope C. realize D. believe • 49.A.cook B. order C. eat D. make • 50.A.free B. busy C. happy D. sad • 51.A.can B. should C. can’t D. needn’t • 52.A.how B. why C. what D. that • 53.A.excited B. interested C. confident D. relaxed • 54.A.first B. second C. next D. last • 55.A.quiet B. quick C. happy D. careful • 41—45 ABACB 46—50 BADCB 51—55 ADDCD

  18. 三、填空题的命制技术 • 这里的填空题是指学生通过填写单词或短语的 • 方式来补全所给材料的考试题型(包括完形填 • 空题型的第二、第三种方式)。

  19. (一)要提供相对完整的语境,使学生能够通过上下(一)要提供相对完整的语境,使学生能够通过上下 • 文的线索判断出所缺内容。 • (二)要明确答案的惟一性或非惟一性。如果确定答案是惟一的,那么要保证排除其他任何可能的答案。如果允许有多种答案,应该在试题说明(指令)中明确指出。同时,应在评分标准中列出所有可能的正确答案。 • (三)要合理制定评分标准。由于填空题可以用于考查不同的内容,所以应根据具体的考查内容和考查目的制定评分标准。

  20. follow; hard; now; interest; just; everyone; other; than; firstly; what • How many people do you communicate with in a day? Probably a lot more (56)________ you did ten years ago. (57)______ we can “talk” to people in more and more ways, not (58)______ face-to-face and on the phone, but also through the Internet. It is very important for (59)______ to try and improve their communications skills, so let’s remember the four golden rules of good communication. (60)______, be as clear as you can. Misunderstandings happen if we don’t say correctly (61)_______ we mean. Secondly, we have to work (62)_______ at listening. Pay attention to what the other person is saying. Thirdly, ask (63)_______ people what they think, don’t only tell them what you think. Fourthly, give them time to say what they want, and show (64)_______ in whatthey say. • If you (65)______ these rules, you will be a good communicator. • (答案为:56. than 57. Now 58. just 59. everyone 60. Firstly • 61. what 62. hard 63. other 64. interest 65. follow)

  21. 先阅读短文,然后在短文后81-90小题空白处写出各单词的正确形式,单词的第一个字母已给出。先阅读短文,然后在短文后81-90小题空白处写出各单词的正确形式,单词的第一个字母已给出。 • Jerry and Carla were asked to choose a person for class president. As they looked through the list of k______ (81) in the room, they stopped at Tina’s name. Tina had lots of ideas, and she never said unkind things about other people. • “I really like Tina, and most of the classmates will accept her, I i______ (82),” said Carla, “but she looks t______ (83)! She puts on too much makeup, and she wears strange and u______ (84) clothes. Sometimes she wears things that don’t even f______ (85) her.” • “Do you think we could get her to use l______ (86) makeup and never wear decent () clothes?” Carla asked. • “We couldn’t. I t would make us and her not feelc______ (87).” Replied Jerry. “She goes around with high school girls, and she must know by now how she looks. My mother says it is wrong for eight graders to look like those m______ (88) stars!” • “Yes,” Carla a______ (89), “and what will the teachers think if we s______ (90) Tina?” (81. kids 82. imagine 83. terrible 84. unusual 85. fit • 86. less 87. comfortable 88. movie 89. agreed 90. suggest)

  22. 点评:完形填空旨在考查学生在阅读过程中综合运用语言知识的能力。这种题型要学生通过所给材料中的冗余信息寻找线索,进行合理的推理和猜测,在材料中的删词处填入适当的词语。所以,所填词语在形式或语法结构上,或者说有拼写或书写错误,应该不扣分或少扣份。点评:完形填空旨在考查学生在阅读过程中综合运用语言知识的能力。这种题型要学生通过所给材料中的冗余信息寻找线索,进行合理的推理和猜测,在材料中的删词处填入适当的词语。所以,所填词语在形式或语法结构上,或者说有拼写或书写错误,应该不扣分或少扣份。 • 82小题和83小题,给了首字母提示,限制了学生的思维,如果不给,学生还可选择其他的词来表达,如I think/suppose/guess;but she looks ugly/uncomfortable等。在命题时,保证信度的同时,应考虑给学生广阔的思维空间,以提高试题的效度。 • 题目表述也有值得改进的地方。题目应改为:先阅读短文,掌握其大意,然后根据短文内容和首字母提示,在短文空白处填入适当的单词,使短文内容通顺、合理。修改后的题目,指令更清楚、表述更科学。

  23. 学生的答题思路

  24. (一)机械地按照语法规则答题 • 28.---Are you going to Beijing by plane? • ---It’s fast, but expensive. So I am not sure. I ______ take a train. • A. should B. may C. must D. will(0.53) • 40.--Have you found the information about famous people ______ you can use for the report? • ---Not yet. I’ll search some on the Internet. • A. which B. who C. what D. whom (0.28)

  25. (二)利用老师传授的应试技巧来答题(教师总结的考点)(二)利用老师传授的应试技巧来答题(教师总结的考点) • 29.---What a hot day! Have you had a drink? • ---Yes. But I’d like to have ______ after work. • A. it B. one C. other D. another(0.23) • 35. ---Nancy, how long does it take to fly to Canada? • ---Sorry, I don’t know. But I can telephone my father to ______ it for you. • A. do B. check C. catch D. find (0.27) • 应试技巧在有的时候确实可以帮助学生把题答对。但应试技巧,不等同于语言能力(Hughes, 2000)。

  26. (三)固定搭配(死记硬背)导致的思维定势 • 33. ---What should I do, doctor? • ---______ healthy, you should take more exercise. • A. Keep B. Keeping C. To keep D. Having kept(0.49) • 35. ---Nancy, how long does it take to fly to Canada? • ---Sorry, I don’t know. But I can telephone my father to ______ it for you. • A. do B. check C. catch D. find (0.27)

  27. (四)通过汉语思维来做题 • 37. ______ spending our vacation in a hotel, why not try hiking in the country? • A. Instead of B. Because of • C. Thanks to D. As for(0.41)

  28. 备考策略

  29. 精讲词汇、语法要点。 • 关键在语境、语篇中培养学生运用词汇和语法的能力。 • 词汇和语法的复习可融合在听、读、写中训练。

  30. Thank you very much! • E-mail: way3669@yahoom.com.cn