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ENUM Overview ENUM Forum Canada. Richard Shockey IETF ENUM WG Co-Chair Senior Manager – Strategic Technology Initiatives NeuStar, Inc. 46000 Center Oak Plaza Sterling VA 20166 USA rich.shockey@neustar.com +1 571.434.5651 sip:rshockey@iptel.org. Agenda. How did we get here?

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enum overview enum forum canada

ENUM OverviewENUM Forum Canada

Richard Shockey


Senior Manager – Strategic Technology Initiatives

NeuStar, Inc.

46000 Center Oak Plaza

Sterling VA 20166 USA

rich.shockey@neustar.com +1 571.434.5651


  • How did we get here?
  • How does it work?
  • Where is it going …
what is the ietf
What is the IETF ?
  • Internet Engineering Task Force
  • Oversees the standards process for Internet protocols and technologies
  • Industry driven standards body
  • No membership whatsoever
  • Personal participation, anyone can participate
  • Work is done using mailing lists
  • Rough consensus and running code (no voting)


what is the ietf1
What is the IETF ?
  • Work is done in Working Groups (i.e. ENUM WG)
    • WG has a charter, statement of activity, schedule and milestones and a mailing list
    • WGs can be instantiated and closed (by IESG)
  • Working Groups exist within an Area (currently 8 areas, i.e. ENUM WG is part of Transport Area)
    • An area is managed by an Area Director
  • Area Directors are members of the IESG (Internet Engineering Steering Group)
  • The IESG and IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is chartered by the Internet Society
enum in a nutshell rfc 2916
ENUM in a nutshell RFC 2916
  • take phone number

+1 571 434 5651

  • turn it into a FQDN

  • ask the DNS
  • return list of URI’s


step 1 explanation
Step 1 Explanation
  • Each digit in the FQDN can become a definable and distributed “zone” in DNS terms
  • Delegation can (biut doesn’t have to) happen at every digit, including at last digit
  • Zones such as country codes, area codes or primary delegated blocks of numbers can be delegated as well as individual numbers
  • DNS defines authoritative name servers (NS records) for NAPTR/service resource records
the response from the dns
The Response from the DNS
  • Input:


  • Output: All NAPTR RR will be returned to resolver

In this response the preferred contact method is SIP

ord pr fl service regexp replacement

IN NAPTR 100 10 "u" “E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:15714345651@carrier.net!" .

IN NAPTR 100 15 "u" “E2U+VPIM" "!^.*$!vpimserver1.carrier.net!" .

IN NAPTR 100 20 "u" “E2U+fax" "!^.*$!mailto:faxmachine4@neustar.biz!" .

  • Based on service requirements defined by the enumservice field, translate replacement field into URL and execute as required
enum wg
  • RFC 2916 bis is the update of RFC 2916:draft-ietf-enum-rfc2916bis-07.txt
    • RFC number due at any moment
  • Main differences are
    • ENUM is now a DDDS application
    • enumservice field has changed
    • enumservices have to be registered with IANA
    • DNS security mentioned
    • Clarifications on text
why e 164 numbers for voip
Why E.164 Numbers for VoIP?
  • Addressing is the most important asset in ANY network service!
  • People know how to use Telephone Numbers
    • Telephone numbering system (E.164 is stable global and reliable
  • Billions of devices only use numeric key pads, especially wireless
    • In the case of Local Number Portability (FCC First Order and Report), MCI has stated that, based on a nationwide Gallup survey, 83 percent of business customers and 80 percent of residential customers would be unlikely to change service providers if they had to change their telephone numbers.
  • ENUM is perhaps the ultimate in number portability
  • VoIP and new IP Services (Instant Messaging, Video) can use Real Telephone Numbers!
  • URIs like sip:user@domain have advantages and disadvantages
    • Biggest problem they cannot be dialed on the PSTN
      • In fact they cannot be dialed at all …
    • URI’s and telephone numbers will co-exist for the indefinite future
enum as glue
ENUM as glue
  • An URI (Address of Record) mapped to E.164 ENUM FQDN number allows you:
    • Reach any destination IP C/UA directly from IP by dialing the full E.164 number as default
      • support for multiple dialing plans possible including corporate dial plans in a separate tree
      • see I-D: draft-stastny-enum-numbering-voip-00.txt
  • In the future, if ENUM and SS7 can be integrated you can reach destinations on IP from the PSTN/ISDN as well
    • When does a C5 do a ENUM dip?
enum is a ddds application
ENUM is a DDDS Application
  • Dynamic Delegation Discovery System,RFC 3401 through RFC 3405
  • RFC 3401 is the base document, but you have to read at least RFC 3401 through RFC 3404 to understand DDDS
  • RFC 3402 specifies the Algorithm of DDDS
  • RFC 3403 specifies the NAPTR Resource Record
oh btw its about sip
Oh BTW ..Its about SIP
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) protocol
    • It is the Session Initiation Protocol
    • Integration of Voice-Text-Video “sessions”
  • Inventors: M. Handley, H. Schulzrinne, E. Schooler, and J. Rosenberg
  • Became “Proposed Standard” and RFC 2543 in March 1999 in MMUSIC WG.
  • Separate SIP WG established in September 1999.
  • Now new SIPPING (applications) and SIMPLE (presence and instant messaging) WGs using SIP.
  • RFC2543bis-09 I-D became RFC 3261 in June 2002
    • Added four new authors: G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, and R. Sparks.
    • Entire spec rewritten for clarity, but some new features
    • Mostly backwards compatible with RFC 2543
simple enum sip call flow sip rfc 3261
Simple ENUM/SIP Call Flow SIP RFC 3261

ENUM Global Directory (DNS) Equates +1-202-555-1234 to sip:mark@carrier.net to enable Voice over IP using SIP

3. DNS returns NAPTR record containing SIP URL to Calling Party UA

2. Calling party proxy UAC queries DNS for location of end point

1. The caller simply dials the person’s normal telephone number

4. Calling party UA connects the call

enum and voip as a hot potato
ENUM and VoIP as a Hot Potato
  • ENUM is tightly linked with numbering administrations and therefore within the national regulatory framework
    • aka Country Code 1 - NANP
  • Deployment of ENUM is also tightly linked with the deployment of VoIP
  • Deployment of ENUM involves NRA's and Registries (in Europe primarily the ccTLD's)
    • Who those registries are a national matter
  • Surprise Surprise there are lots of Political questions to be answered
how do you use enum for
How do you use ENUM for?
  • Business: with IP PBX or IP Centrex – core activity
    • using geographic and/or numbers for networks (opt-in)
    • linking IP islands together globally via the Internet
  • Residential: with my geographic number or mobile (opt-in)
    • secondary line or as primary line (ported out)
  • Network to Network ...the Private ENUM issue.
    • Cable Operators
    • Inter-Intra Enterprise Dial Plan Management
  • Residential and Business: ENUM-only number ( European Focus )
    • IP device can be reached from PSTN and IP
    • calls may be dumped to IP in the originating network using IP specific prefixes like 050 in Japan
    • Not possible in NANP due to NPA restrictions (non service specific)
public enum vs operator enum
Public ENUM Vs Operator ENUM
  • Public ENUM is the administrative policies and procedures surrounding the administration of e164.arpa as defined in RFC 2916
    • 1 to 1 mapping of E.164 number to URI’s
    • Nation State Control –
    • Generally speaking Consumer Opt In ( Consumer Control of the NAPTR records)
  • Operator (Private) ENUM is the use of DNS technology described in RFC 2916 in other domains.
    • A Managed Service
    • Service Provider or Enterprise Controlled
    • Non Visible to the the general Internet user
      • VPN’s
      • Access Control to the Data
global enterprise voip dial plan
Global Enterprise VoIP Dial Plan
  • IBM is deploying the biggest VoIP network of any major Fortune 500 company
  • IBM can unite global VoIP dialing plans across existing VPN and Intranet Links on diverse vendor Platforms
  • ENUM unites them through common administration and access plan


Public or


mso market optimal service routing
MSO Market : Optimal Service Routing
  • MSO can now optimize VoIP call termination strategies by routing calls directly from one operator to another –ENUM acts a element in a overall Least Cost Routing Strategy
  • Essentially “Friends and Family” dialing plans among MSO’s



very short enum history
(Very short) ENUM History
  • 1999 - IETF ENUM WG formed
  • Sept. 2000 – IETF ENUM WG – RFC2916
  • 2001 – Various Workshops (ITU-T, Europe, US, Asia, …)
  • 2002 – ITU-T Interim Procedures (IAB, RIPE-NCC) – ITU-T generic TLD Investigation – ETSI TS 102 051 "ENUM Administration in Europe"
  • 2003 – ETSI TS 102 172 "Minimum Requirements for Interoperability of European ENUM Trials" – IETF various enumservices on standards track – IETF RFC2916bis WGLC
  • 2004 – Planned: – IETF new ENUM RFC, IANA registered enumservices – ITU-T final decision on ENUM domain – ETSI ENUM Workshop (Feb 2004) and Plugtest
very short enum trial history
(Very short) ENUM Trial History
  • 2002 – US ENUM Forum – Trial Platforms in AT, UK, SE, DE, CN, N*… – Austrian ENUM Trial in operation (Sept. 2002)
  • 2003 – Various national and international ENUM Trials using different scenarios and numbering resources and using different ENUM-enabled products – National and international demos and presentations (IETF, ITU-T, VON, ICANN, …) – SIP communities start using ENUM (FWD, Sipphone, iptel, at43, …) – Pre-commercial deployment starts
  • 2004 – ENUM ready for production and deployment (at least in some countries)
the iab itu agreements
The IAB – ITU Agreements
  • Core Principal – Nation-State control of the national portions of the e164.arpa tree.
  • [RFC3026] Blaine, R. "Liaison to IETF/ISOC on ENUM" RFC 3026, January 2001
  • [RFC 3245] Klensin, J. Editor "The History and Context of Telephone Number Mapping (ENUM) Operational Decisions:  Informational Documents Contributed to ITU-T Study Group 2  (SG2)", RFC 3245, March 2000
  • Interim Procedures for the delegation of E.164 Shared Country Codes for Networks and Groups of Countries;  http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/inr/enum/procedures.html http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/inr/enum/procedures-02.html
large scale ipc trial at43
Large Scale IPC Trial at43
  • Large Scale Trial on IP Communications using ENUM
  • University of Vienna ~100.000 Students
    • re-use of existing student account credentials via RADIUS
    • iptel.org SIP Express Router as SIP proxy with call routing, ENUM processing, PSTN interworking
    • some functions based on Asterisk open-source IP-PBX:
      • voice-mail, conference bridge, IVR,
    • PSTN Connection: CISCO 5300 PSTN/ISDN Gateway with PRA
    • Various Soft- and Hard-phones, WiFi-Phones, …
    • IP Connection to other universities, communities and "IP-PBX"
    • Applications: Crash test for VoIP, Chat, IM, Presence, SMS, use of SIM-Cards…
  • IP calls free, PSTN->IP calls by caller; IP->PSTN with call-by-call accounting
  • Naming, Numbering and Addressing with ENUM
    • Base: sip:<student-id>@sip.univie.ac.at
    • Austrian number for private networks: +43 59966 nnnnnn
    • global UPT number: +87810 2843 nnnnnn


* NAPTR 100 10 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^\\+4359966(.*)$!sip:\\1@sip.univie.ac.at!" .

dns technology as a replacement for ss7
DNS Technology as a replacement for SS7
  • ENUM/DNS and or SIP can provide a more sophisticated, less expensive and easier to deploy Number Translation Services for service providers.
    • The natural evolution of NextGen telephony signaling systems
      • SCP costs 1 Million Dollars + PRI’s + per dip charges
      • DNS Box 25 K maximum BIND9
  • SS7 signaling is complicated, expensive and disruptive in an all IP architecture
    • Number Portability- Geographic number to routing number mapping (NP dip)
      • http://search.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-yu-tel-url-02.txt
  • It’s there
    • It works… It’s global… It scales… It’s open…
public enum status what about the us
Public ENUM Status - What about the US?
  • US DOMESTIC POLICY – August 13, 2003
    • United States Government reiterates its support for RFC 2916 and endorses moving forward with ENUM based on the concept of a Industry Managed LLC
      • LLC is forming NOW !
      • Similar to Number Portability Structure
      • http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/press/2003/enum_08132003.htm
  • United States ENUM Forum - Created by industry to develop policy and steps to Implement ENUM in the United States
    • http://www.enumf.org
    • Participants include WCOM, ATT, Sprint, SBC, Verizon, NeuStar, Cox , C&W, Cisco, Telcordia
enum global status 23 active national trials
ENUM Global Status – 23 Active National Trials


  • UK National Trials Well Underway 2003
    • http://www.ukenumgroup.org/
  • Austrian National ENUM trials have begun with AT-NIC
    • http://www.enum.nic.at
      • Jointly working on 822-10 ITU-UPT code as well
    • http://www.visionng.org
  • Sweden running since Dec 2002..
    • http://enum.autonomica.se/
  • ITU ENUM web pages
    • http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/enum/index.html
enum global status national forums
ENUM Global Status – National Forums
    •  http://etjp.jp/english/
  • Poland
    • http://www.dns.pl/ENUM/
  • Korea
    • http://www.enum.or.kr/
  • The Netherlands, Germany, Brazil, China
  • Approved ENUM Delegation list
    • http://www.ripe.net/enum/request-archives/
  • ETSI Plugfest
    • http://www.etsi.org/plugtests/calendar.htm
lessons learnt in the enum trials
Lessons learnt in the ENUM Trials

ENUM technology works,

    • Most problems solved, but shift in focus for the business models.
  • The original business model of ENUM for residential subscribers with opt-in for existing numbers has problems:
    • Potentially it's only a second line service
      • 911 issues
    • privacy problems with multiple services (e-mail spam)
    • Validation and re-validation of the number holder problem
  • How to enable Metcalfe's Law?
    • The usefulness, or utility, of a network equals the square of the number of users
ietf work today
IETF Work Today
  • Privacy Security
  • Operational Experience
  • servicefield IANA registration
    • SIP
    • H.323
    • Presence
    • FAX – T.30 and Internet Fax
    • VPIM
    • web - msg
privacy and security issue
Privacy and Security issue
  • http://www.shockey.us/enum/draft-ietf-enum-privacy-security-01.txt
  • What is ENUM
    • Calling party control –
      • Global Directory Service
      • List all available URI for all possible services ?
    • Called Party control - IMHO the answer
      • Minimal Routing Data Base
      • SIP AOR only
      • Let SIP do the dirty work
security authentication issues
Security / Authentication issues
  • What about DNSSEC
    • Its not ready yet. Period.
  • Who can register the TN and why?
    • Punt – It’s a national issue
  • How do you determine if the ENUM registrant has valid rights to the number?
    • Punt – It’s a national issue
ietf enum wg tbd
  • Provisioning protocols the ENUM system
    • Tier 1 Tier 2 interactions (SOAP ?)
    • XML object based on PROVREG work ?
  • WHOIS ?
    • Strong technical reasons for wanting a WHOIS like service here
    • CRISP (aka not port 43)?
      • The IRIS protocol ?
  • Developed in IETF to provide capability sets existing in telecom Intelligent Network environment
  • Text based protocol designed to allow registries of Internet resources
    • to express query and result types specific to their needs
    • while providing a framework for authentication, structured data, entity references and search continuations
  • Encompasses the following
    • a decentralized system using DNS hierarchies where possible for location
    • built upon standard Internet building blocks
    • does not impose any informational trees or matrices
    • may be used with multiple application transports, including BEEP
iris features
IRIS Features
  • XML based
  • Internationalization
    • Localization of data tags and content
    • Identifying contact equivalences
    • Support of Internationalized Domain Names
  • Unified Service
    • Structured queries and results
  • Distinction
    • Authentication – the process used to verify the identity of a user
    • Authorization – the access policies applied to a user based on authentication

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