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charissa-britt

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The Civil War
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  1. The Civil War 1861-1862

  2. USA vs CSA

  3. USA vs CSA • Also, the US has a strong leader in President Lincoln and has a well-organized navy • What about the Confederacy? • Psychological – fighting for survival • Familiar territory/ defending • Strong military leaders – Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet, Nathan Bedford Forrest

  4. Union Strategy • Anaconda Plan • Blockade southern ports and take control of Mississippi River to cut CSA in half • Keep the Border States • MO, KY, MD, DL • So, not mess with slavery – goal is to save the Union

  5. Confederacy’s Strategy • Defensive War • Make Union suffer casualties • Gain international support • Britain and France

  6. Bull Run/ Manassas • July 1861 • Virginia • USA – General McDowell with 30,000 • CSA – Generals Johnston and Beauregard with 32,000 • Confederate victory thanks to reinforcements • Where Stonewall Jackson gets his name • Get new Union general - McClellan

  7. Union Success in the West • Feb 1862 • Grant captures Fort Henry and Fort Donelson • Capture 14,000 Confederates • April 1862 – Battle of Shiloh • Tennessee • USA – Grant with 67,000 vs CSA – Albert Sydney Johnston with 45,000 • Confederates win 1st day but Union reinforcements arrive 2nd day and defeat them. Johnston is killed • 25,000 casualties in 2 days – horrified North and South • Grant gets the reputation as a butcher

  8. Monitor v. Merrimack

  9. Shenandoah Valley Campaign • Spring 1862 • Stonewall Jackson used speed and surprise to defeat Union armies totaling 52,000 with only 17,000 men. • Major Confederate victory as Lincoln must take troops away from the Peninsula Campaign to protect Washington DC

  10. Peninsular Campaign/Seven Days Battle • March – July 1862 • McClellan (US) vs Joseph Johnston (CS) and later Robert E. Lee • US – 105,000 • CS – 92,000 • Lee is aggressive • Confederate Victory • Saves the capital • Lincoln replaces McClellan

  11. Second Battle of Bull Run/Manassas • August 1862 • US – John Pope – 62,000 • CS – Lee – 50,000 • Confederate Victory • North becomes even more demoralized • Lee/army is seen as Invincible

  12. Antietam/Sharpsburg • After victories, Lee wants to invade the North to end the war or win a victory to get international support • Sept 1862 – McClellan finds Lee’s plans • US – McClellan – 75,000 • CS – Lee- 36,000 • Bloodiest single day of Civil War as there are 23,000 casualties • Stalemate but Lee does retreat

  13. Emancipation Proclomation • Lincoln for the past year realized he could not avoid slavery issue – but needs a victory so it does not look like desperation • Use Antietam • Said all slaves are free in the rebelling states • Not free in Border states • Actually, did not really free anyone • However, still a turning point b/c it redefined the war for the North – now it is about slavery

  14. Fredericksburg • Dec 1862 • Virginia • US – Burnside – 115,000 • CS – Lee – 73,000 • Confederates have good defenses • Union Army loses 14,000 • CSA Army loses 4,000 • Confederate Victory

  15. The Civil War 1863-1864

  16. As you come in, think about these questions • What was the Union’s strategy? • What was the South’s strategy? • What happened at Antietam? • What was the Emancipation Proclamation? • Who were the South’s two most brilliant generals?

  17. The Home Front • What the North does while the South is away • Income Tax • Homestead Act • Pacific Railroad Act • Land Grant College Act • Lincoln vs Copperheads • Lincoln suspends right of habeas corpus • The CSA finds it difficult to pay for the war • Print paper money - inflation

  18. Chancellorsville • May 1863 • Virginia • CS – Lee – 55,000 • US –Hooker – 132,000 • Confederate Victory • Considered Lee’s greatest victory • Jackson is accidentally shot – dies May 10

  19. Vicksburg • City along the Mississippi River • Union needed it to control the River • Anaconda Plan • Grant’s first few attempts fail • Eventually surrounds the city – under siege • Confederates forces surrender on July 4, 1863 • Major Union Victory • Confederacy is split in two

  20. Gettysburg • Lee wants to gain international support, demoralize the Northern public, and end the war, so he invades the North.

  21. Gettysburg • Confederates were looking for shoes • Find Union cavalry • Both sides call in reinforcements • Day 1 – Confederates drive Yankees from Gettysburg

  22. Gettysburg – Day 2 • Lee with 75,000 • Meade with 92,000 • Lee hits them on the right and left • Stalemate – Yankees hold

  23. Gettysburg – Day 3 • Lee decides to hit them in the center at Cemetery Ridge • Pickett’s Charge - 13,000 Confederates march ¾ mile in open field • Break thru at one point but are defeated • 55% of 13,000 are casualties

  24. Gettysburg – Turning Point • Union Victory • Over 50,000 casualties • Lee retreated back to Virginia • Largest battle of Civil War • Why did Lee lose? • Stonewall Jackson • JEB Stuart • General Ewell

  25. 1864 – Overland Campaign (May-June) • Grant called by Lincoln to head Union Army and fight against Lee in 1864 • Plan - inflict losses on South they could not replace • Total War - hit military and civilian targets to weaken economy and army • Battles: • Wilderness CS 10,000 vs US 18,000 • Spotsylvania CS 12,000 vs US 18,000 • Cold Harbor CS 3,000 vs US 13,000 • High Union casualties – North is not happy with Grant • Finally, armies settle in at Petersburg - siege

  26. Sherman’s March to the Sea • General Sherman – does Total War strategy as well • In spring of 1864, 60,000 begin their 250 miles march to Savannah, GA. • Allows troops to loot and destroy anything of value • Destroyed railroads, buildings, farms • Captures and burns Atlanta • Finally captures Savannah, GA in Dec 1864

  27. 1864 Election: Lincoln vs McClellan

  28. The Civil War 1865

  29. Nearing the End • Grant had Lee and Petersburg surrounded and under siege • Grant’s losses are heavy but he can afford them • Lee’s troops are holding but low on food, ammunition, etc… • Possible peace negotiations? • No, b/c US is trying to ratify 13th Amendment • Would abolish slavery

  30. Prison Camps • Andersonville – in GA • Hold 10,000, held at one time 32,000 • Point Lookout – in MD • Hold 10,000, held at one time 50,000 • Lack of food, medical supplies, and spread of disease caused thousands to die

  31. The War Ends • Lee evacuates Petersburg and Richmond is abandoned in April 1865 • Decides to surrender at Appomattox Court House • Surrenders to Grant on April 9, 1865 • Other southern forces surrender in the coming months • Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14 • Part of a plot to create chaos in the North and give South time to regroup

  32. Why the North Won • Population • Technology • Resources • Military leaders (Grant and Sherman) • Lincoln

  33. Impact of the War • Industrial Growth – will continue after the war in the North, lay foundation for Industrial Revolution • The South and its economy was in ruins • Freed slaves head West – get cheap land and start fresh • Still sectional differences but not to the extent of leading to a war.