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OBJECTIVE :. To be able to tie the 7 basic knots. SCOPE :. Introduction to the types of rope Maintenance of a rope Parts of a rope Methods of tying knots. 2 main rope types commonly used :. NATURAL FIBRE ROPES : Examples: Hemp, Manila, cotton Limitations : Rot easily in humid

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    1. OBJECTIVE : To be able to tie the 7 basic knots

    2. SCOPE : • Introduction to the types of rope • Maintenance of a rope • Parts of a rope • Methods of tying knots

    3. 2 main rope types commonly used : NATURAL FIBRE ROPES : Examples: Hemp, Manila, cotton Limitations : Rot easily in humid conditions * Strength of such ropes are limited due to the fact that natural fibers are short.

    4. SYNTHETIC FIBRE ROPES : Examples : Nylon , Polyester Stronger and lighter than natural fibers of the same size . Will not rot so easily as they absorb less water. Limitations: Ropes are smoother and Knots may easily be undone Sensitive to overheating Can cause rope burn

    5. NYLON ROPES : • Have great elasticity compared to synthetic ropes. • Good for absorbing shock loads • Not suitable for tying some of the rope obstacles because the occurrence of friction during tying that produces heat and reduces the rope’s strength • Easy to handle, good for instructional use on tying of knots for hands-on session

    6. POLYESTER ROPES : • Have less ability to stretch. Good for heavy stress. • Used in activities where minimal stretch is required • Like the tying of sails for boats and mooring lines • Easy to handle • Resistant to ultraviolet light. Water resistant thus will not rot so easily.

    7. Deterioration : All ropes deteriorate with wear and some deteriorate under the influence of weather or chemicals. • Natural fibre ropes, for example, are very susceptible to rot while wire and synthetic ropes are not. • However, galvanized wired ropes can rust while synthetic ropes can be seriously affected by heat or sunlight. • Chemicals such as acid attack most materials and damage from abrasion is one of the most common causes of deterioration in any ropes.

    8. Prevention : • Keep all ropes away from the ultraviolet light and sun as much as possible • Store all ropes in a well ventilated room • All ropes should be dried and cleaned before storage • Keep all ropes away from chemicals • Need to maintain care of ropes

    9. PARTS OF A ROPE

    10. POINTS TO REMEMBER : • A rope that has twice the diameter of another has four times it’s strength • Never use two ropes of different materials together as only the more rigid rope will work under the strain • Do not use ropes that will float for anchorage in ports as they would be severed by the propellers of a boat • Repair frayed ends immediately

    11. 7 BASIC KNOTS : • Thumb Knot • Figure of Eight • Reef Knot • Fisherman’s Knot • Sheet Bend • Bowline • Clove Hitch

    12. THUMB KNOT It is used as a simple stopper knot Preventing a rope from running through a block

    13. FIGURE OF EIGHT KNOT Preventing a rope running through a block. Commonly used for the sheets of a sailing boat

    14. REEF KNOT Used to join 2 ropes of the same thickness together

    15. FISHERMAN'S KNOT Used to join 2 slippery ropes of the same thickness together

    16. SHEET BEND Used to join 2 ropes of different thickness together

    17. BOWLINE Used to tie a loop that is fixed for rescue purposes

    18. CLOVE HITCH Used for securing a rope to round objects

    19. TENT GUY LOOP : • Used to secure the tent to the supporting pegs in the ground. • One end of the rope is secured via a bowline to the Sleeve ring of the tent. • Another end of the rope goes beneath the hook of the peg . • Make a slip knot ( bootlace tie method ) with the rope end in your left hand

    20. TENT GUY LOOP : • Insert the other end of the rope into the slip knot and pull it down. • After pulling, curl this end of the rope around the hook of the peg again. • Tie 2 half Hitches round the pegs (Refer to final diagram)

    21. COMBINED PRACTICAL : Challenge: Recall all knots and tie in the rope provided.

    22. CONCLUSION : Knots are essential in Campcraft It is also needed to pitch tents during camps With these skills, you will be able to apply them in camps and making gadgets such as rafts