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Annual ConferenceGeorgia Supportive Housing AssociationNovember 13, 2012 The State Prisons and the Need for Housing Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities Presented by: James F. DeGroot, Ph.D. Georgia Department of Corrections
Georgia CJS Statistics • 56,000 in Prisons • 160,000 on Probation • 25,000 on Parole • $1.1 Billion annual cost • 5.9% of state budget • $75 Million to build new prison • $35-$45 Million annual operating cost
Who are we incarcerating? • Disenfranchised Populations • Limited Resources • Psychological • Educational • Vocational • Financial • Residential • Overwhelming Stressors • Medical Problems • Traumatic Brain Injury • Mental Health Problems • Substance Use Problems • Family Problems
Disenfranchised Populations • GDC has a disenfranchised, stigmatized, and disrespected segment of our population: • Felons • Addicts • Minorities • Unhealthy • Unstable • Uneducated • Unemployed • Homeless
Limited Psychological Resources • Inability to: • Delay gratification • Modulate affect • Control impulses • Comfort themselves • Tolerate frustration • Trust others • Problem solve
Limited Vocational Resources • Unemployment Rate (for year before incarceration): • Non-Mental Health 48% • Mental Health 71%
Overwhelming Stressors: Medical Problems • Physiologic age > Chronologic age • Drug use • Life style factors: smoking, alcohol, nutrition, activity • Minimal/ No healthcare: medical/ dental/ mental health • Accelerated chronic diseases • Increased Aged, Blind, Disabled (ABD)
Overwhelming Stressors: Medical Problems FY-09 >35 years of age = 57% population = 80% claims >50 years of age = 14% population = 40% claims > 65 years of age average cost = $ 8565 vs. < 65 years of age average cost = $ 961
Overwhelming Stressors: Traumatic Brain Injury • Research indicates that between 25-87% of all inmates have had a head injury or Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in comparison to 8.5% of the general community population (CDC 2006).
Mental Health Problems • A study conducted in 2005 concluded that 4.6% of Georgia’s population was in need of mental health services vs. 15.7% of GDC’s inmate population.
Substance Abuse • The lifetime prevalence of either alcohol or drug abuse dependence was 73.7% for state prison inmates in contrast to 7.6% for residents in the community.
Family Problems • 11% of GDC’s inmates are married. • 58% of GDC’s inmates have at least one child. • 20% of GDC’s MH population was raised outside their home. • 15% of GDC’s non-MH population was raised outside their home.
Housing Problems • Parole approved but no residence plan: • 15 Level III/IV Sex Offenders • 40 Level III/IV Mental Health Inmates • Total 55 SPMI Data as of November 2012
Georgia Department of Corrections by the Numbers • FY 12 Annual Admissions 21,402 • FY 12 Annual Releases 19,994 • FY 12 Monthly Releases 1,667 • FY 12 Weekly Releases 384 • FY 12 MH Monthly Releases 200 • FY 12 MH Monthly Releases by Acuity: • High Acuity 5 – 8 • Fragile 25 – 30 • Stable 160 - 170
Reentry Partnership Housing (RPH) • Provides housing to convicted felons who remain in prison, after the Parole has authorized their release, solely due to their having no residential options. • Provides short-term financial assistance to help stabilize an individual’s reentry process and enhance his ability to remain crime-free. • Offenders released to RPH providers will be under parole supervision. • Aim is to reduce recidivism and enhance public safety.
RPH Information • Total number of RPH releases (Mo. Avg. FY-10) 5 • Total number of Parolees placed 793 • Total number of approved RPH providers 28 • Total number of pending provider applications 8 • Net cost avoided due to RPH placements $18,135,056.00 • Total spent for RPH placements $1,097,600.00 • Total cost spent to incarcerate past TPM $8,609.927.00 • Cost avoided from RPH release to Max Out $33,307.927.00 • Total cost of Parole Supervision $14,075.271.00 (at $4.43/day)
Transitional Housing for Offender Reentry (THOR) • A directory is maintained by Georgia State Board of Pardons & Paroles (SBPP) Field Operations Division to assist staff with making offender residence decisions. It identifies approved residential facilities that provide housing for offenders under active supervision. • To be included in the THOR directory, a facility must: • Provide a safe and health environment for residents and staff. • Maintain consistent and timely communication with parole and/or probation officers • Deliver services that facilitate recovery from alcohol, drugs, and/or criminal lifestyles
THOR Facilities • Are the primary alternatives for offenders who have unaddressed criminogenic needs and/or who are homeless or nearly so. • The THOR directory lists two types of facilities: • Structured Housing: for offenders who need only a safe environment in which to live. Does not include substance abuse or mental health treatment, although other programming may be provided. • Recovery Residence: for offenders who require substance abuse services or substance abuse counseling. • SBPP makes the final decision on each facility’s residence designation as a Structured Housing facility or a Recovery Residence.
Criminogenic Risk Factors (Risk of Recidivism) • Static Risk Factors • Zip Code • Age • Gender • Race • Dynamic Risk Factors • Antisocial Behavior • Antisocial Personality • Antisocial Cognition • Antisocial Associates • Family and/or Marital Problems • School and/or Work Problems • An Absence of Leisure and/or Recreational Activities • Substance Use Problems *The Big Four must be effectively addressed before a focus on the remaining factors will show positive outcome.
Specialized Housing • Specialized Housing consists of facilities that have secured lock-down units, an interest in providing beds to a special-need population eligible for release, and must meet all zoning, regulatory, and sex offender housing requirements. • There is a high demand for specialized housing to accommodate sex offenders, violent offenders, those requiring electronic monitoring, and those with medical and mental health heeds. • There is also a need for providers with resource-based facilities able to meet provide services to offenders in need of nursing homes, personal care facilities, and assisted living facilities.
The Commissioner Speaks • “Each week, hundreds of inmates return to communities across the state, and many are in need of specialized housing. Our goal is to place them in suitable housing where they will begin the process of becoming a productive member of society”. -Commissioner Brian Owens