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Genetics Vocab. What are terms and ideas that you don’t know. Genetics Definitions. Genotype- Genetic make up of an organism (The alleles an organism has) Ex Bb or BB Phenotype- The physical characteristic of a person (What you can see) Ex Brown hair, Blonde hair

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genetics definitions
Genetics Definitions
  • Genotype- Genetic make up of an organism (The alleles an organism has)
    • Ex Bb or BB
  • Phenotype- The physical characteristic of a person (What you can see)
    • Ex Brown hair, Blonde hair
  • Heterozygous- An organism that has different alleles for the same trait
    • Ex Bb
  • Homozygous- An organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
    • Can be Homozygous Dominant BB or Homozygous recessive bb
slide4
Punnet squares are tools used to determine the possibility a trait will be inherited
  • It can determine the CHANCE a specific trait will be inherited if the parents genotype for a trait is known
  • Trait is written with the First Letter of the dominant trait
  • Dominant trait is written with a capital letter
  • Recessive trait is written with a lower case letter
slide5
What will the genotype and phenotype ratio be a Heterozygous woman and a Homozygous Dominant Father if Brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes?

Dad's Genotype (represents sperm created in Meiosis

Genotype Ratio

1:1 BB to Bb

Phenotype Ratio

4:0 Brown eyes to Blue Eyes

B b

Mom’s Genotype (represents eggs created in Meiosis)

B

B

B B

B B

B b

B b

if a heterozygous tall plant is bred with a short plant what genotypes can be present
If a heterozygous tall plant is bred with a short plant what genotypes can be present

Genotype (represents sperm created in Meiosis

Genotypes

TT tt

T t

Genotype (represents eggs created in Meiosis)

t

t

T t

T t

T t

t t

slide7
Incomplete Dominance
  • The phenotype is a mix of the two phenotypes Ex: Red and White flowers mix
    • Alleles are written with the first letter of both Traits R and W RR= RED WW=White RW=Pink
  • Co-Dominance Both Alleles contribute to the phenotype Ex: Red and White Flowers could make splotchy Flowers
    • RR= Red WW=White RW=Splotchy
slide8
In four o’clock flowers The genes for red color and for white color produce a pink color. If two pink flowers are crossed what color of flowers will result?

Pink Flowers Genotype sperm created in Meiosis

Genotype Ratio

1:2:1 RR: RW:WW

Phenotype Ratio

1:2:1 RED:PINK:WHITE

R W

Pink Flowers Genotype (represents eggs created in Meiosis)

R

W

R W

R W

R R

W W

co dominance
CO-DOMINANCE
  • In cattle The genes for red (R) and for white (W) result in a speckled coat called roan. If a white cow and a roan bull what color of offspring would be predicted?

Roan Bull’s Genotype sperm created in Meiosis

White Cow’s Genotype (represents eggs created in Meiosis)

Genotype Ratio

1:1 RW:WW

Phenotype Ratio

1:1 ROAN:WHITE

W W

R

W

W W

W W

R R

W W

sex linked traits
Sex Linked Traits
  • Located on 23rd Chromosome
  • Males have only one X chromosome Thus all X linked alleles are expressed in males even if they are recessive
  • They do not have another X chromosome to cover the allele
slide11
Color blindness (Xb) is a recessive sex linked trait. The normal gene is Expressed like This (XB) Determine the sex, and % of color blind children created from a heterozygous normal mother and a color blind father

Fathers Genotype sperm created in Meiosis

50% Females

25% color blind color blind females

50 Males

25% color blind males

Xb XB

Mothers Genotype (represents eggs created in Meiosis)

Xb

Y

Xb XB

Xb XB

Xb Xb

Y Y

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