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The Early Lancastrian Dynasty From Henry IV to Henry VI Rival Claimants: The Mortimers Henry VI’s Troubles Minority; Madness; Faction The Rise of the Yorkists Richard, Duke of York Edward IV’s Reign(s ) 1483 Edward IV’s End Richard III’s Usurpation 1485 Henry Tudor

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The Wars of the Roses


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    1. The Early Lancastrian Dynasty From Henry IV to Henry VI Rival Claimants: The Mortimers Henry VI’s Troubles Minority; Madness; Faction The Rise of the Yorkists Richard, Duke of York Edward IV’sReign(s) 1483 Edward IV’s End Richard III’s Usurpation 1485 Henry Tudor Bosworth The Wars of the Roses Edward III’s Descendants

    2. The Lancastrian Dynasty (Red) From Henry IV to Henry VI Henry IV’s Usurpation Claim through John of Gaunt (d. 1399) 3rd Son of Edward III (d. 1377) Rival Claimants – Mortimers Edward & Roger Mortimer, E. of March Via Lionel, Duke of Clarence 2nd Son of Edward III Henry V (r. 1413-22) Relative Unity in French War Noble Admiration of Warlike King Early Death, Dysentery Henry IV, Usurper; National Portrait Gallery

    3. Henry VI’sTroubles Minority (r. from 1422, 9 Months Old) Rivalry Among Uncles & Nobles Dks Bedford, Gloucester John Beaufort, E. of Somerset Younger Brother of Henry IV William de la Pole, E. of Suffolk Madness Pious, but Unstable; Bouts of Insanity Faction Rise & Greed of Suffolk during the 1440s Pilfering from the State Abuse of Royal Properties Richard, D. of York; Military Experience Henry VI, National Portrait Gallery

    4. The Rise of the Yorkists (White) Richard, Duke of York (b. 1411) Claim via 2 Sons of Ed. III (Lionel) Son of Ann Mortimer (Rival of H4) Huge Wealth; Marriage w/ Nevilles Richard Neville, E. of Warwick Richard’s Activity Henry VI & Queen Fearing Richard Vs. Edmund Beaufort, D. Somerset H VI’s Insanity, R’s Regency 1453-5 St. Albans, May 1455 Richard, w/ Neville Support Henry VI, w/ Somerset & Percy Support Yorkist Control of H6; Queen Plotting 1459: Strong Reaction vs. Yorkists Margaret of Anjou, Queen Consort of Henry VI

    5. Yorkist Ascendancy Con’t Yorkist Revenge Warwick & Richard’s Son, Edward Capture Henry VI at N’hampton, ’60 Richard’s Death at Wakefield, Dec. ‘60 Son, Edward’s Victories in ’61 Towton, March ’61 (Largest Battle) Edward IV (r. 1461-) Aid of Warwick (“Kingmaker”) Opposition of Queen Marriage Alliance with Woodville, ’64 Neville – Woodville Rivalry Rising against Edward, ‘69-70 Henry VI Reinstated, ’70, Defeated, ’71 Edward IV in Control, 1471-83; Few Challenges Battle of Barnet, April ‘71; Ed. IV Victorious, Kingmaker Dead

    6. 1483 Edward IV’s Death, April ’83 Brother, Richard, D. Gloucester Loyal Servant of the King Heir: Edward V, 13 Years Old Protector: Richard or Woodvilles? Uncle Richard Seizes Power Ed. V and Brother (Richard, D. York) Imprisoned (Killed?) in Tower Richard III Crowned, July ’83 Alienation of Yorkist Supporters Rebellion of Much of the South Richard III, Nat. Portrait Gallery

    7. 1485 Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond Lancastrian Link to John of Gaunt French, Breton, British Support Sails from France, Route through Wales Bosworth, August 22, 1485 Middle of England Henry had c. 5,000 Men Richard had c. 8,000 Men William Stanley Switches Sides 3,000 Men Symbolic of the Wars Richard III Dead; Henry Tudor Crowned Young Henry Tudor, NPG