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The Scientific Revolution. c.1550. What is the Scientific Revolution?. In European history the term 'Scientific Revolution' refers to the period between Copernicus(1473-1543), and Newton (1642-1727)

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what is the scientific revolution
What is the Scientific Revolution?
  • In European history the term 'Scientific Revolution' refers to the period between Copernicus(1473-1543), and Newton (1642-1727)
  • The scientific revolution - a series of changes in the structure of European thought itself: systematic doubt, empirical and sensory verification, the abstraction of human knowledge into separate sciences, and the view that the world functions like a machine.
  • A revolution in the way the individual perceives the world.
  • An intellectual revolution -- a revolution in human knowledge.
  • The scientific revolutionaries attempted to understand and explain man and the natural world.
  • The Scientific Revolution challenged the authority of the classical world (Ptolemy, Aristotle) and of the Middle Ages – The Church.
  • Pre-scientific revolution influences on Europe also included Arabic science, math and astronomy (Nasir al-Din Tusi, Mu’ayyad al-Din al-‘Urdi and ibn al-Shatir) from the 12th century.
  • Science is faith – a belief that science can improve our situation here on earth.
leonardo da vinci 1452 1519 the true renaissance man
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)The True “Renaissance Man”
  • Dissected bodies to learn human anatomy
  • First to explain the circulation of blood
  • Believed that the earth revolved around the sun.
  • Drew designs for submarines & airplanes.
  • Leonardo NEVER published his scientific ideas.
  • One of the western world’s greatest artist (Mona Lisa)
beginning of the scientific revolution in europe
Beginning of the Scientific Revolution in Europe
  • Began in Europe when Polish scholar Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) challenged the Ptolemaic concept of an earth-centered universe (geocentric).
  • Copernicus demonstrated mathematically that it was the sun that was at the center of the universe (heliocentric).

- His theory was rejected by most experts.

- Dutch astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)

provided evidence through an astronomical observatory that supported Copernicus’ theory.

- Brahe’s German assistant Johannes Kepler used Brahe’s data to confirm Copernicus’s theory of a heliocentric universe.

nicolaus copernicus 1473 1543 kopernik
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Kopernik
  • Known as the “Father of Astronomy”
  • Born in Poland, studied at the University of Krakow (Poland) and University of Bologna (Italy).
  • Most famous work: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)
the scientific method of francis bacon 1561 1626 and rene descartes 1596 16507
The Scientific Method of Francis Bacon (1561-1626)and Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)
  • Both rejected Aristotle’s scientific assumptions.
  • Challenged scholarly traditions of the medieval universities that sought to make the physical world fit in with Church teachings.
  • Truth is found not at the beginning of research but at the end.
  • Bacon wanted science to lead to practical technologies that would benefit the lives of people.
  • Descartes emphasized the use of reason as the best way to understand science. Bacon emphasized experimentation and observation.
  • Descartes moved to the Dutch Republic when his books were banned in France.
galileo galilei 1564 1642
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Born in Pisa, Italy. Lived in Florence.
  • Studied at the University of Pisa.
  • First scientist to publish his studies in vernacular (Italian) rather than in Latin.
  • Achievements include:
      • Studied the movement of a pendulum that led to development of a pendulum clock

- improvement of the telescope

- Astronomy: observed the earth’s moon, four moons of Jupiter & the phases of Venus.

- Earth was one of many planets revolving around the sun – part of a larger Solar System.

- Strong supporter of Copernican theory.

trial of galileo11
Trial of Galileo
  • 1616 – The Catholic Church forbade Galileo to teach that the earth moves. 1633 – forced to appear before the Inquisition for failing to obey the Church order.
  • At the Inquisition, he agreed to recant his assertions about the earth’s movement to save himself from torture and possible execution.
  • Lived the rest of his life under house arrest. Could only publish his work in the Dutch Republic. Catholic Church banned his work.
  • After his trial, the Protestant areas in Europe dominated scientific discovery.
  • September,1822: publishing books supporting the heliocentric model of the universe permitted by Pope Pius VII.
  • 1835: Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is taken off the Vatican's list of banned books.
  • 1992: Catholic Church formally admits that Galileo's views on the solar system are correct.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Index Librorum Prohibitorum
galileo quotes
Galileo Quotes
  • All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.
  • Where the senses fail us, reason must step in.
  • I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use.
  • In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.
  • Doubt is the father of invention.
  • I think that in the discussion of natural problems we ought to begin not with the Scriptures, but with experiments, and demonstrations.
  • "My dear Kepler, what would you say of the learned here, who have steadfastly refused to cast a glance through the telescope?  What shall we make of this?  Shall we laugh, or shall we cry?"
breakthroughs in medicine and chemistry
Breakthroughs in Medicine and Chemistry

1. Andreas Vesalius – (1514-1564, Belgian) On the Structure of the Human Body (1543)

- Continued and refined da Vinci’s work on the human anatomy.

2. Ambroise Pare – (1517 - 1590)

- Introduced the use of artificial limbs in the 1540’s.

3. William Harvey – (1578-1657, English)

- Published work explaining the circulation of blood.

4. Anton Leeuwenhoek – (1632-1723)

- Perfected the microscope and was the first human to see cells and microorganisms.

dimitri ivanovich mendeleev 1834 1907
Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907)
  • Born in Russia.
  • Studied at the University of St. Petersburg.
  • Developed the Periodic Table of Elements in the 1860’s.

- By arranging all of the 63 elements then known by their atomic weights, he managed to organize them into groups possessing similar properties.

- Where a gap existed in the table, he predicted a new element would one day be found and deduced

its properties.

newton s theories and achievements
Newton’s Theories and Achievements
  • Synthesized astronomy and physics with his law of gravitation.
  • Discovered the law of gravity.
  • Deeply religious, he tried to reconcile faith and science.
  • Experimented with light and helped establish the science of optics.
  • Newton’s contributions to physics became the foundations for modern science.
impact of the scientific revolution
Impact of the Scientific Revolution
  • One of the supreme achievements of the human mind.
  • Science affects practical affairs:

- changed the size of populations

- changed the use of raw materials

- changed methods of production, transport, business, war.

3. Science has changed the ideas of religion, God and man.