Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
International Health Regulations Preben Aavitsland
Main concents of current IHR (1969) • Notification to WHO of cases of cholera, plague and yellow fever • Certain health related rules for international travel and trade • Prescription of maximum border measures against cholera, plague and yellow fever (deratting, desinsection…) • Health documents for people, aircraft and ships
Limitations of current IHR • Concerns only cholera, plague and yellow fever • The old paradigm of case-based surveillance • Difficult to revise disease list • Dependent on official notification from the member state • No incentives to notification • Very few notifications • Notifications seemed as a very serious act by states • No formal mechanisms for collaboration between member state and WHO • No dynamic in the response for stopping international spread
A rationale for the revision • Current IHR almost irrelevant • Infectious diseases know no borders; member states should collaborate to stop them where they emerge • More international travel and trade • Early warning is essential and depends on collaboration and guarantees to notyfing member state against misue of information • Measures should be coordinated internationally; WHO may take this role • Anthrax attacks (2001) and sars (2003)
The revision process • 1995 (WHA 48): Decision to revise IHR • 1995-2003: Worskhops, consultations etc. • January 2004: First draft for consultation • March-June 2004: Regional consultations • November 2004: Intergovernmental Meeting I • February and May 2005: Intergovernmental Meeting II • May 2005 (WHA 58): Adoption of the IHR • June 2007: Entry into force
Purpose of IHR Article 2 Purpose and scope • The purpose and scope of these Regulations are to prevent, protect against, control, and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to risks to public health, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade.
Surveillance and notification • Article 5 and 6 and annex 2 • A shift of paradigm from the previous IHR • From case-based (cholera, plague…) • To event based (event of potential international public health concern) • To be determined by National IHR Focal point
Events detected by national surveillance systems Two or more yes notify WHO. Other events consult WHO.
WHO may use other sources of information • Not only notifications and consultations from National IHR Focal Points • Also unofficial information • Non-governmental organisations • Newspapers • Internet • Rumours • WHO shall then consult with Member State to find out more about the event
Public health emergencyof international concern (pheic) • An extraordinary public health event • constitutes a public health risk to other States through the international spread of disease and • potentially requires a coordinated international response • Determined by WHO after consultation with Emergency Committee
WHO recommendations on measures • Articles 15-18, for verified pheic • After consultation with the Emergency Committee • Ad hoc, time-limited, risk-specific measures • Measures could be directed towards persons, baggage, cargo, containers, ships, aircraft, road vehicles, goods or postal parcels • Recommendations to affected state or other states or both • States must follow recommendations • States should not take other measures (see article 43)
Notification is smart • Notification is a start of a dialogue with WHO • Verification and information sharing • Assistance • Reporting criteria are very sensitive and less specific most events are not pheic • WHO follows strict procedures • to determine whether event is ”public health emergency of international concern” (pheic) • to issue recommendations • Notification is a protection against unjustified measures from other states
Main obligations of Member States • Notify WHO of all events that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern • Respond to requests for verification of information regarding public health risks • Respond to public health risks which may spread internationally • Develop, strengthen and maintain the capacity to detect, report and respond to public health events • Implement WHO-recommended measures • Provide scientific justification for any additional measures adopted