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Section 1.2. Operations with Integers. Addition and Subtraction. Addition and Subtraction. Addition and subtraction of the numbers is done with the digits in the corresponding place-values of both numbers, from the smallest ones to the largest.

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section 1 2

Section 1.2

Operations with Integers.

Addition and Subtraction.

addition and subtraction
Addition and Subtraction

Addition and subtraction of the numbers is done with the digits in the corresponding place-values of both numbers, from the smallest ones to the largest.

For both operations we can visualize them by using the number line.

Let’s first look at the addition and subtraction of positive and negative numbers.

example

+(-3)

+5

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

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Example:

Addition of a positive number

Addition of a positive number makes the result larger

(more positive).

Addition of a negative number

Addition of a negative number makes the result smaller

(more negative).

example1

-(-4)

-5

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

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Example:

Subtraction of a positive number

Subtraction of a positive number makes the result smaller

(more negative).

Addition of a negative number

Subtraction of a negative number makes the result larger

(more positive).

addition and subtraction1
Addition and subtraction

Addition

In operation of addition both added numbers are called addends.

The result of addition is called a sum

Addend 1 Addend 2 Sum

Subtraction

In operation of subtraction the number from which another number is subtracted is called minuend, the number that is subtracted is called subtrahend.

The result of subtraction is called the difference

Minuend Subtrahend Difference

The difference is that unique number c for which

example2
Example:

Add or subtract integer numbers

example3
Example:

Add or subtract integer numbers

we can see that addition of a negative number is the same as a subtraction of its opposite.

addition and subtraction in column
Addition and Subtraction in Column

When adding or subtracting large numbers addition or subtraction in column is used

When adding or subtracting in column always make sure that the place-values of both numbers are aligned:

  • ones are aligned with ones
  • tens with tens
  • hundreds with hundreds and so on.
subtracting a larger number from a smaller
Subtracting a Larger Number from a Smaller

When subtracting a larger number from a smaller one always subtract the smaller number from the larger and make the difference negative.

Example:

To subtract

first subtract

and then make the difference negative