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Integrated policies for energy and economy. Mark Barrett UCL Energy Institute. GREEN GROWTH: SMART POLICIES – SMART TECHNOLOGIES’’ Prague, 21st October 2010, National Technical Library, Technická 6, Prague. Basic argument. Context :

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Integrated policies for energy and economy l.jpg

Integrated policies for energy and economy

Mark Barrett

UCL Energy Institute

GREEN GROWTH: SMART POLICIES – SMART TECHNOLOGIES’’Prague, 21st October 2010, National Technical Library, Technická 6, Prague

Basic argument l.jpg
Basic argument


  • Growth in the demand for energy services

  • Depleting finite fossil and fissile energy resources

  • Environmental threats; climate change, other pollution

    Consequences with business as usual:

  • Energy security undermined

  • Economy inefficient and vulnerable to energy price fluctuations

  • Environmental impacts with high social and economic cost

    Policy responses:

  • Review of consumption

  • Energy efficiency

  • Renewables

    Result of new policy:

  • Sustainable society and efficient economy

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  • Meet objectives at least cost with social equity

  • Avoid irreversible, risky technologies


  • Reduce dependence on finite fossil and nuclear fuels

  • UK 20% of energy from renewables by 2020 => ~35% renewable electricity?

  • renewable transport fuels: 5% of by 2010, 10% by 2020



  • Government targets for GHG reduction from 1990: 12-20% by 2010, ~30% by 2020, 60-80% 1990-2050, including international transport.

  • Require >95% GHG reduction for climate control and global equity


  • 20/30% GHG reduction 1990-2020

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Ethics: equal CO2 emission per person?

Humans have equal rights to emissions, therefore convergence of emission per person in the EU and elsewhere? What about different resources and climate of countries? Note that for global equity, EU per capita emissions will have to fall by over 95% to reach 60% reduction globally.

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EU Scenarios

Six scenarios for each EU25 country were constructed to reach these objectives using different combinations of NEOP measures implemented to different degrees.

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Exogenous assumptions (from PRIMES WCLP scenario): basic drivers

Population peaks and declines

More households

GDP growth

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UK dwellings scenario ( driversillustration)

Stock projection

Slow demolition rate, so refurbish.

Cohort space heat loss

Space heat in 2050 dominated by current buildings

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SEEScen sample: Transport: passenger vehicle distance drivers

Demand management and modal shift can produce a large reduction in road traffic reduces congestion which gives benefits of less energy, pollution and travel time.

Assumed introduction of electric vehicles to replace liquid fuels, and reduce urban air pollution.

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Cars: carbon emission by performance drivers

Car carbon emissions are strongly related to top speed, acceleration and weight. Most cars sold can exceed the maximum legal speed limit by a large margin. Switching to small cars would reduce car carbon emissions by some 50% in 15 years in the UK (about 7% of total UK emission). Switching to micro cars and the best liquid fuelled cars would reduce emissions by 80% and more in the longer term. In general, for a given technology, the emissions of pollutants are roughly related to fuel use, so the emission of these would decrease by a similar fraction to CO2.

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Energy economics: chaotic rising fuel prices drivers



Europe industrial electricity prices


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Energy economics - scenario drivers

High carbon

High fuel prices

Large fraction of cost

Low energy

Low carbon

Lower fuel cost

More predictable

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Energy economics drivers

Low carbon

Lower cost?

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SEEScen sample: EU25 CO2 emissions by country : EU30pc20N scenario

. The black squares show the targets for 2010 and a 30% reduction by 2020.

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SEEScen sample: EU25 CO2 : variant scenarios scenario

40% reduction

New nuclear

Maximum behaviour

No new nuclear

Maximum technology

No new nuclear

Maximum technology and behaviour

No new nuclear

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SEEScen sample: Energy security scenario

EU25 energy trade : including fuels for international transport: EU30pc20N scenario

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Air pollution : emissions and reduction costs scenario

The EU30N energy scenario results in lower emissions and control costs for all pollutants than in the EUV scenario.

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InterEnergy scenario – trade optimisation animated

This shows InterEnergy seeking a least cost solution.

It illustrates how patterns of electricity flow might change.

An increase in renewable electricity will require a higher capacity grid with more sophisticated control

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Conclusions: 1 scenario


  • Large energy demand reduction feasible with technologies in all sectors, but smaller reductions in road freight transport, aviation and shipping.

  • Behavioural change very important, especially in car choice and use, and air travel.


  • A shift from fossil fuel heating to solar and electric heat pumps

  • A shift from fossil electricity generation to a mix of renewables

  • Large renewable electricity potential and Europe might become a net exporter of electricity

  • but remain a large importer of oil

  • Renewable energy fraction difficult to define.

  • Main problem is replacing fossil liquid transport fuels, especially for aircraft and ships

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Conclusions: 2 scenario

  • Large CO2 reductions possible

  • Date and rate of introduction of measures critical.

  • Low carbon scenarios have a lower total and air pollution control cost than high carbon scenarios

  • Demand reduction and renewables address all problems simultaneously

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Positive prospects scenario

  • Vast domestic and foreign markets for efficiency and renewables in a world with 7 billion people.

  • Require a range of labour skills for technology production and installation.

  • Efficiency and renewable markets are sustainable, unlike those based on finite energy sources.

    Energy efficiency:

  • Technologies: insulation, ventilation control, appliances, heat pumps, vehicles, CHP

  • Installation: buildings, transport, industry, supply

    For example: building energy-efficiency investment US$ 300 billion annually would

    reduce building energy use and carbon by ~52% with paybacks 5-10years. (WBCSD, 2009)

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World building needs scenario

Ageing population everywhere

Less developed regions

  • Population growth about 3 billion (40%) percent to 2050

  • number of households will grow by about 1.6 billion (80 %) - decreasing household size a factor.

  • Rapid urbanisation. China +0.4 billion more urban dwellers in 20 years; India, similar trend

    Developed regions

  • nearly static

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Positive prospects - supply scenario

  • Electricity. EU more wind installation than any other generation. Huge markets developing in China

  • And globally….

Source: EIA, IEA, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, REN21, UNEP SEFI Note: *Excluding large hydro. Renewable capacity figures based on known commissioned projects logged on the Bloomberg New Energy Finance desktop

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IMPLEMENTATION UK: changes scenario


  • 25 M houses to refurbish, 10 M new build


  • Demand management

  • National – 20 M (?) electric vehicles, infrastructure

  • Long distance / international rail


  • Demand reduction ~50%

  • Generation: UK ~100 GW of renewable capacity

  • Transmission, and load management

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IMPLEMENTATION: social capacity scenario

Labour: skills and workers to:

  • Build electric vehicles, wind turbines etc.

  • Refurbish buildings

    Require mix of :

  • public sector planning and investment

  • market structures for private sector

    Requires international cooperation

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Barriers and policies scenario

Fundamental barriers:

  • Dominance of (mainly fossil/fissile) energy supply oligopolies who profit by volume of energy sales.

  • Weakness of consumers and new supply entrants in terms of market power, information, financing etc.

    Policy instruments

  • Regulatory

  • Market.

  • Public investment

    There are practicable policies as demonstrated by countries with high levels of efficiency (consumption and CHP etc.) and renewables, particularly in Scandinavia.

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A renewable and reversible strategy minimising intergenerational waste burdens; no new nuclear power and negligible fossil carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).

  • 50-80% reduction in energy demand with behavioural and technical measures

  • Increase conversion efficiency in boilers, motors, heat pumps, and cogeneration

  • Increase renewable energy. How best to use biomass - in CHP?

    • Renewable heat is supplied to the stationary sectors either on site with solar energy, or via renewable electricity driven heat pumps.

    • Renewable electricity replaces transport oil where possible via electricity to trains and electric vehicles.

      Some known unknowns

  • Long distance transport. How to replace kerosene in aircraft and oil in ships? Technical and political problem replacing liquid fossil fuels in aviation and shipping means emission reductions approaching 100% in the stationary sectors.

  • Will social capacity and instruments be available to implement measures fast enough?

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References scenario

UNFCCC (2008), Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change: an

update. Techncial paper FCCC/TP/2008/7. UNFCCC.

UNEP/SEFI Bloomberg, 2010, Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2010: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), 2009, Energy Efficiency in Buildings; Transforming the Market.


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References: Barrett scenario


CONSUMPTION: Report on consumption, energy and carbon dioxide including behavioural measures.


Barrett M, December 2007, Low Emission Energy Scenarios for the European Union, report 5785. ISBN 91-620-5785-5, ISSN 0282-7298.

Naturvårdsverket (Swedish environmental protection agency, SE-106 48 Stockholm


Consultancy to DfT on project. Carbon Pathways: Analysis Informing Development of a Carbon Reduction Strategy for the Transport Sector, July 2008 .

Overview of some aspects of sustainable transport :


Technical scenarios

Effects of charges:

ELECTRICITY: Feasibility of a high renewable electricity system

Barrett, M. 2007, A Renewable Electricity System for the UK. In Renewable Energy and the Grid: The Challenge of Variability, Boyle, G., London: Earthscan. ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-418-1 (hardback).


Barrett M, Holland M, April 2008, The Costs and Health Benefits of Reducing Emissions from Power Stations in Europe. Published by the Air Pollution and Climate Secretariat and the European Environmental Bureau. ISBN: 978-91-975883-2-4

ISSN: 1400-4909.