CURRICULUM MAPPING Creating Lutheran Schools of Academic Excellence
MAPPING IS… A technique for recording time on task data and then analyzing this data to determine the ‘fit’ to the officially adopted curriculum and the assessment/testing program. Fenwick English 1983
We are teaching… • What? • When? • Why? • How? • With what results?
Experienced Teachers… • Know what they are teaching • Know what they are not teaching • May or May not know why they are teaching what they are or are not teaching!
New Teachers…generally don’t have a clue as to… • What to teach. • What not to teach. • Why they are teaching what they are or are not teaching!
Administrators… • Just can’t keep up!
ADMINISTRATORS • Spend on average only 11% of their time on instructional matters! And… Instruction matters!
QUESTIONS to create ‘buy in’… • Do your teachers get to the end of the textbook each year? • Do you believe that one textbook holds all of the content a student needs to learn? • Do your textbooks integrate Christian teachings? • Do your teachers know what their students have learned in the previous grade, and what they need to learn for the next grade? • Have your students ever said, “We learned that last year?” or, “We never learned that!”
Why Mapping? • We have more to teach. • We need to know where our students have been and where they are going. • We have more to people/groups to please. • Instruction time is limited. • Need curriculum development for accreditation. • Makes sense. • Technology makes it possible.
Mapping can help… • Experienced teachers qualify decisions to add or omit units, concepts or skills. • Inexperienced teachers know what their students have been taught, and the curriculum goals for their class/content area. • Administrators keep track of their school’s curriculum and assessment practices. • Students make good use of their learning time in school – fewer repeats. • The Christian faith is intentionally incorporated into units and lessons.
Mapping will give all involved… • A clear picture of what is taught and assessed at each grade level in every content area. • An opportunity to find gaps and overlaps in the current curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices. • A new appreciation for the learning process. • A sense of professionalism
TO REMEMBER… • Curriculum mapping is a procedure for collecting information about the operational curriculum in a school. • Maps are calendar-based and include four elements: content, skills and thinking processes, assessments, and faith integration. • Maps are written by teachers not by publishing companies.
MAPS will impact school learning and instruction • Departments can investigate the map to identify gaps in the vertical (within the discipline for that grade) and horizontal (within the discipline for all grades) alignment of courses. • Teachers can assess what students mastered in the preceding grade and focus on building skills and knowledge. • Horizontal alignment, assures that all teachers follow a similar timeline.
Maps will help teachers locate repetitions and gaps in the curriculum, match the curriculum with standards, and aid in curriculum integration. (Can a topic be covered in another content area) • Maps are created by teachers and revised after a series of readings and shared findings. Mapping involves entire faculty. • Maps are tools for communication, planning, and teacher training.
START the curriculum discussion… • Is our school’s curriculum driven by publishing companies? Should it be? • Is our school’s curriculum driven by national and state standards? Should it be? • What should drive our curriculum?
WRITING a curriculum is scary… • How do we know what we should teach? • How do we know when to teach it? • How do we why we are teaching what we teach? • How do we know our students will be well prepared? • Where do we start?
IN the beginning…. Steps to begin developing/mapping your own curriculum: • Set school goals – by the end of the year we will have… • Each teacher spends 15 – 30 minutes a week completing a topic map for each subject. (This could be completed in a few hours at a pre-school session based on previous year) • Faculty meetings become work sessions for developing philosophy statements and learning objectives. • Make time to review and share – mix it up by grade levels and content areas. All PreK – 3rd teachers meet, all science teachers meet etc.
GETTING STARTED….with a CONTENT PHILOSOPHY… Why are we teaching what we are teaching? How does what we teach relate to who we are as Christians? How do children learn? What methods should be used? How will we know students have learned?
LANGUAGE ARTS Philosophy Statement We believe that to effectively proclaim and teach the Gospel of Jesus Christ, our students must become proficient speakers and writers of the English language. They must be equipped to defend their faith both orally and in written exposés. Students must first learn and know the rules of the language before they express their thoughts and ideas. In addition, their vocabulary must be expanded to include word origin, definitions, usage, antonyms and synonyms. Teachers must build skills through memorization of rules, daily practice drills, regular evaluation, and practice. Writing is a key element to a comprehensive language arts program, and students must write every day. Exposure to various writing examples including Scripture is critical in developing young writers, and the language arts program must be structured to work side-by-side with the reading and social studies curriculums. Students must be encouraged to write in every style, and use the process of brainstorming, editing, and proofing in the process. A firm understanding of the language will enable students to discern information, make godly decisions, and witness their faith throughout their lives.
MATH Philosophy We believe that mathematical learning relies on children’s opportunities to describe and explore the relationships of objects, patterns, time and materials in God’s world. Students’ knowledge and understanding of mathematics is built on practice, repetition and active manipulation in the areas of numbers and operations, patterns and functions, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. Students must learn essential problem-solving skills that will be used in today’s diverse society and explosion of technology. During these years we must give children rich and appropriate mathematical experiences so they can conceptualize the symbols, structures, and shapes of mathematics later in life. Recognition of mathematical elements established by God provides limitations and parameters essential to daily life and cultivates an appreciation of the intricacies of God’s world.
OBJECTIVES…what do you want your students to know? • Start with the teacher for the next grade, ask them, “What do my students need to know to begin your level of instruction?” • Start with your highest grade. What do you want your 12th graders, 8th graders, 6th graders, 4 year olds to be able to do, understand, solve, or produce. • Make a list, determine what objectives are appropriate for each age, and how often do you repeat. • Will you expect basic, proficient or mastery levels.
LANGUAGE ARTS objectives The Language Arts Curriculum seeks to: • Teach the 6 step writing process: prewriting, rough draft, revising, editing, final paper and publishing. • Develop writing skills in a variety of styles; expository, persuasive, descriptive, narrative, creative, comparison and contrast, friendly letters, business letters, poetry, book reviews, how-to process, research reports. • Teach proper oral language skills. • Prepare students to effectively communicate verbally and in print. • Teach sentence structure and parts of speech. • Develop an understanding of the English language, word origins etc. • Develop vocabulary skills. • Prepare students to identify a writer’s purpose. • Prepare students to use a variety of sources to gain information. • Prepare students to express and defend the Christian faith using both oral and written language skills.
NOW on to mapping…. • Phase 1 – Gathering data. Create a common template and common area to write, & gather information. (Networking drive, Google Docs, software program) Once the topic map is completed, make a second copy and label it content map. Teachers can use the second map to add content (skills, concepts, objectives) One content area/year.
How to start… Phase I Collecting the Data • Spread sheets can be created so teachers can type in the basic topics, concepts and/or skills covered in their classroom by topic and then content. Google Docs ideal format. • Maps should be designed in the same format to make comparisons easier. • Teachers complete a map based on the topics they are teaching in their classroom on a weekly/monthly basis by discipline. • Topic maps should not take longer than 15 minutes/week, or a few hours at year’s end/beginning to create
T O P I C M A P
RLS Curriculum Map GRAMMAR - topic Level 7 & 8
RLS Curriculum Map - Topic GRAMMAR Level 4 & 5
Next… • Once the topic maps are completed for each discipline, teachers summarize specific concepts, skills and assessments in that discipline – more detail.
CONTENT MAP: OBJECTIVES Literature Grades 7/8
RLS Curriculum Map - Content GRAMMAR Level 7 & 8
RLS Curriculum Map - Content GRAMMAR Level 4 & 5
Next… • Add state standards to your maps • Add Faith Development/Application • Add Assessment s • Add technology tools
MAPS will evolve • Instruction should remain the center of our discussion, specifically Christian instruction. • New opportunities to learn, new methods, new resources will change maps.
7 PHASES OF MAPPING • Collecting Data – what is actually happening in the classroom • The First Read-through – teacher-as-editor • Mixed-Group Review – small group by discipline • Large Group Review – all faculty members • Determine Points That Can Be Revised Immediately • Determine Points that Require Long-Term Research • Review Cycle Continues
COLLECTING DATA • What do you want to know about your school’s curriculum? • Choose the format; Topic maps – general more thematic Content maps – more specific, skill and objective based – could include assessments Standard maps – aligning skills and content to state standards Include Christian Faith application and technology resources
PHASE IIREAD-THROUGHS • Teachers are the map editors, reading each map alone, noting repetitions, gaps, and areas for integration in their content area. • Read-throughs should take about 2- 4 hours per teacher depending on the number of classrooms and teachers.
PHASE IIIMIXED GROUP REVIEW • Groups of teachers work together with other teachers who are not on their team or in their grade level to review maps. • Groups should be between 6 – 8 people, however smaller schools will have smaller teams, and maybe even the same teams all the time!
PHASE IVLARGE GROUP REVIEW • Small group findings are shared and discussed. • Depending on the size of the faculty, working groups may now consist of teams that relate: common disciplines, common grade level, departments etc.
PHASE VDETERMINE IMMEDIATE REVISIONS • Groups go through data to address glaring repetitions that can be addressed easily with minimal disruptions by teachers. • elimination of a topic through teacher negotiation • integration of units
PHASE VIDETERMINE POINTS THAT WILL REQUIRE LONG-TERM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT • What is developmentally appropriate? • Will rescheduling need to take place? • Do we need to purchase new texts or materials? • Are supplemental materials required? • What will happen if we eliminate units? • Can we create interdisciplinary units? • Can we justify what we are teaching, when we are teaching it, and how we are teaching it? • Are the assessments developmentally appropriate? • Is the Christian faith intentionally integrated? • Are we using technology effectively and efficiently?
PHASE VII – Ongoing Review • Faculty meetings become more about learning and instruction • Work to make Christ and His teachings at the center of our curriculum conversation
END result… • We (administrators, teachers, students, parents, boards) know what we are teaching, when and why. • Time is used more efficiently – gaps are closed, redundancies are eliminated • Christian instruction remains the focus of faculty discussions – more collaborating/sharing • Resources and results are shared in an organized professional manner - credibility
OBSERVATIONS • What is possible with the information on the maps? • What would you be able to do if you had this information? • How would your school be different if you had this information available now?