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Reaction and Revolution. Liberalism. People should be as free as possible from gov’t restraint Protection of civil liberties Equality before the law Freedom of speech, assembly, press. Favor constitutionalism Rule by constitution Religious tolerance Separation of church and state

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liberalism
Liberalism
  • People should be as free as possible from gov’t restraint
    • Protection of civil liberties
      • Equality before the law
      • Freedom of speech, assembly, press
slide3

Favor constitutionalism

    • Rule by constitution
  • Religious tolerance
  • Separation of church and state
  • Representative assembly
slide4

Liberals did not believe everyone had right to vote

    • Right to vote should be open only to men of property
  • Tied to middle-class men
    • Especially industrial middle-class
ideal of nationalism
Ideal of Nationalism
  • Nationalism fuels effort to build nation-states
  • Nationalists loyal to people, not kings
  • Share common bonds
  • People of single ancestry should unite under single gov’t
nationalism shakes aging empires
Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
  • Force for Disunity or Unity?
    • Disunity
      • People that want to restore old order from before French Revolution
      • Ethnic groups want nation states = split and crumble of empires
    • Unity
      • Bring ethnic groups together
nationalism
Nationalism

6 Bonds

1. Culture

2. History

3. Language

4. Territory

5. Nationality

6. Religion

revolutions of 1848 france
Revolutions of 1848 - France
  • 1846 – Economic Problems lead to hardships
    • Lower-middle class, workers, peasants
  • Middle class wanted right to vote
    • Gov’t refused to make changes
  • 1848 – monarchy overthrown
    • Provisional government created
    • Constitutional Assembly
      • Elected by Universal Male Suffrage
slide10

Nov. 4, 1848 – Second Republic created

    • Single legislature elected by all males
  • December 1848 – Elect Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte president
    • Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
italian unification
Italian Unification
  • Italy ruled by many groups
    • Austria
      • Venetia and Lombardy
    • Spanish Bourbons
      • Kingdom of Two Sicilies
  • Italians don’t want to live under separate rulers
    • 1815 – 1848 – move toward unification
slide12

1848 – nationalists look to Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia for leadership

    • Largest and most powerful Italian state
    • Liberal constitution
  • 1849 – King Victor Emmanuel II
slide13

1852 – Camillodi Cavour appointed prime minister

    • Expanded economy to increase gov’t revenues
    • Created army
      • Not large enough to defeat Austrians
    • Cavour allies w/France
      • 1858 – Louis-Napoleon
      • Combined army takes over northern Italy, except Venetia
southern italy
Southern Italy
  • Cavour Secretly helped rebels in southern Italy
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi leads Red Shirts
    • Capture Sicily
    • Conquers Southern Italy
    • Given permission by people to unite North and South
  • March 17, 1861 – Italy finally unified
    • Garibaldi turns over control to King Victor Emmanuel II
slide15

1866 – Venetia becomes part of Italy

  • 1870 – Italians take Papal States
    • Ruled by pope
    • Rome becomes capital of Italy
bismarck unites germany
Bismarck Unites Germany
  • 1839 – German Confederation
    • 39 German states formed into a loose grouping
    • Dominated by largest states
      • Austria-Hungary
      • Prussia has advantages
        • Mainly German population
        • Powerful army
        • industrialized
slide18

Prussia Leads German Unification

    • Authoritarian gov’t
      • King had control over gov’t and military
    • 1861 – Wilhelm I succeeds throne
      • Reforms army and doubles military
      • Liberal parliament refuses to give money
      • Seen as challenge to authority
      • Supported by Junkers – conservative wealthy landowners
slide19

Wilhelm I appoints Otto von Bismarck prime minister

    • Realpolitik
      • “Politics of reality”
      • Power politics w/no room for idealism
      • Based on practical matters not theory
    • Ruled w/out consent of parliament and budget
      • Ruled by “Blood and Iron”
slide20

Prussia Expands

    • 1864- forms alliance w/Austria
      • War w/Denmark to win Schleswig and Holstein
slide21

Seven Weeks’ War

    • Causes conflict w/Austria over Schleswig and Holstein
      • Austria declares war in 1866
    • 7 Weeks’ War
      • Prussian victory
      • Austrians lose Venetia to Italy
      • Prussia controls northern Germany
      • Joins eastern and western parts of Prussia
      • 1867 – North German Confederation dominated by Prussia
slide22

Franco-Prussian War

    • war with France
    • Bismarck claims French insulted Wilhelm I
    • French declare war on July 19, 1870
    • Southern Germany joins Prussia
      • Nationalism joins territories
    • January, 28, 1871 – French surrender
      • Pay 5 billion francs
      • Give up Alsace and Lorraine
slide23

Wilhelm I crowned kaiser (emperor) at Versailles

    • Second Reich
    • Dominance through “blood and iron”
      • War and military strength
a shift in power
A Shift in Power
  • Following Congress of Vienna 5 Great Powers
    • Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
  • By 1871 – 2 great powers
    • Britain and Germany
      • Most powerful militarily and economically
    • Austria and Russia
      • Lag far behind
    • France in the middle
  • Balance of Power had shifted
    • Sets up possibility of future conflict