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Chapter 16: Human Impact on Ecosystems. 16.1 – Human Population Growth and Natural Resources. Key Concept: As the human population grows, the demand for Earth’s resources increases. Earth’s human population continues to grow. Earth’s human carrying capacity is unknown.

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16 1 human population growth and natural resources
16.1 – Human Population Growth and Natural Resources
  • Key Concept: As the human population grows, the demand for Earth’s resources increases.
earth s human population continues to grow
Earth’s human population continues to grow.
  • Earth’s human carrying capacity is unknown.
technology has helped increase earth s carrying capacity
Technology has helped increase Earth’s carrying capacity.
  • Gas powered farm equipment
  • Medical advancements (antibiotics, antiseptics)
the growing human population exerts pressure on earth s natural resources
The growing human population exerts pressure on Earth’s natural resources.
  • Nonrenewable resources: used faster than they form
    • Coal, Oil
  • Renewable resources: cannot be used up/ replenish themselves over time
    • Wind, Water, Sunlight
  • Growing use of nonrenewable resources may lead to a crisis.
  • Resources must be managed properly.
16 2 air quality
16.2 – Air Quality
  • Key Concept:
    • Fossil fuel emissions affect the biosphere.
pollutants accumulate in the air
Pollutants accumulate in the air.
  • Pollution is any undesirable factor added to the air, water, or soil.
  • Smog is one type of air pollution.
    • Sunlight interacts with pollutants in the air
    • Pollutants produced by fossil fuel emissions
    • Made of particulates and ground-level ozone
acid rain
Acid Rain
  • Caused by fossil fuel emissions
  • Produced when pollutants in the water cycle cause rain pH to drop
  • Can lower the pH of a lake or stream
  • Can harm trees and animals
air pollution is changing earth s biosphere
Air pollution is changing Earth’s biosphere.
  • Levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide rise and fall over time
  • High levels of CO2 are typical of Earth’s warmer periods
greenhouse effect
Greenhouse Effect
  • Slows the release of energy from Earth’s atmosphere
    • Sunlight penetrates Earth’s atmosphere
    • Energy is absorbed and reradiated as heat
    • Greenhouse gases absorb longer wavelengths
    • Greenhouse gas molecules rerelease infrared radiation
global warming
Global Warming
  • Trend of increasing global temperatures

Red outline shows where arctic sea ice was in the summer of 1979

16 3 water quality
16.3 – Water Quality
  • Key Concept:
    • Pollution of Earth’s freshwater supply threatens habitat and health.
water pollution affects water ecosystems
Water pollution affects water ecosystems.
  • Pollution can put entire freshwater ecosystems at risk.
pesticides used in farming can impact water quality
Pesticides used in farming can impact water quality.
  • When farmers apply pesticides to their crops, these chemicals can find their way into the water/hydrological cycle
  • Runoff (after rain)  groundwater  lakes and streams  aquatic life  humans and other consumers
indicator species
Indicator Species
  • Species that provides a sign of the ecosystem’s environmental conditions
    • Amphibians
    • Top predators
biomagnification
Biomagnification
  • Causes accumulation of toxins in the food chain
    • Pollutants can move up the food chain
    • Predators eat contaminated prey
    • Pollution accumulates at each stage of the food chain
    • Top consumers, including humans, are most affected.
16 4 threats to biodiversity
16.4 – Threats to Biodiversity
  • Key Concept:
    • The impact of a growing human population threatens biodiversity.
preserving biodiversity is important to the future of the biosphere
Preserving biodiversity is important to the future of the biosphere.
  • The loss of biodiversity has long-term effects.
    • Loss of medical and technological advances
    • Extinction of species
    • Loss of ecosystem stability
habitat fragmentation
Habitat Fragmentation
  • Prevents an organism from accessing its entire home range
    • Occurs when a barrier forms within the habitat
    • Often caused by human development
    • Habitat corridors are a solution to the problem
      • Road overpasses or underpasses
      • Allow species to move between different areas of habitat
introduced species
Introduced Species
  • A species brought to an ecosystem by humans
    • Accidental or purposeful
  • Invasive species
    • Environmental and economic impact
    • Often push out native species

Burmese python (Florida) Mice (Australia) Kudzu (southeastern US)

16 5 conservation
16.5 - Conservation
  • Key Concept:
    • Conservation methods can help protect and restore ecosystems.
sustainable development
Sustainable Development
  • Meets current needs without hurting future generations
    • Timber industry (plant trees as others are being cut down)
    • Global fisheries (rotation of catches, harvest reduction, fishing bans
conservation practices focus on a few species but benefit entire ecosystems
Conservation practices focus on a few species but benefit entire ecosystems.
  • Endangered Species Act
  • Clean Air Act
  • Clean Water Act
  • National Parks
people can help protect the environment
People can help protect the environment.
  • Control population growth
  • Develop sustainable technology and practices
  • Protect and maintain ecosystems