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  1. CGE hands-on training workshop on GHG inventories Jan 8-12 Environmental Management Corp. Republic of Korea Dr. Kyoung-sik Choi

  2. Objectives • Test and analysis for Tier 1 method • Feasibility study of Tier 2 Method • CH4 Emission Coefficient constant by characteristics of landfill - Landfill Condition • Climate • Comparison between Tier 1 and Tier 2 • Developing of reliable emission method by Tier 2 method

  3. Developing Status [Initial Status] Apply IPCC Default value Underestimate Emission [MOE Proposal] IPCC Method Measurement of Emission Reliability Problems Developing status IPCC Good Practice Measurement & Development of Reliability How?

  4. Emission Patterns in Landfill A B Extraction Well Crack or Weak Point Surface Diffusion Emission Rate CH4 Emission rate in landfill vs Time Time

  5. IPCC Good Practice Guidance Default Method : Tier 1 • Assumption • MSW landfilled in a year would be converted completely into CH4 which would be emitted from the landfill in the same year • Limitation to application • Only applicable for landfills demonstrating constant quality and quantity of MSW with respect to time

  6. CH4 = (MSWT x MSWF x L0–R) x (1-OX) • Default Method MSWT = Total MSW generated (Gg/yr) MSWF = Fraction of MSW disposed at Landfills L0 = Methane generation potential (Gg CH4/Gg waste) L0 = MCFⅹDOCⅹDOCFⅹFⅹ16/12 MCF = Methane Correction Factor (fraction) DOC = Degradable organic carbon (fraction) DOCF = Fraction DOC dissimilated F = Fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas R = Recovered CH4 (Gg/year) OX = Oxidation factor (fraction)

  7. QCH4(CH4Emission : ton/yr) = k × L0 × M0 MCH4 (CH4Emission : ton) =M0× L0 × {exp(-kc)-exp(-kt)} • Tier 2 : FOD Method • Assumption • Assumption total landfill sites as a similar type landfill • Annual waste amount is a certain level during landfill periods • Application • To record disposal activity data in the landfill

  8. Questions • GHG emission calculation correct? • Degree of the exact data necessary? • Different from existing research?

  9. Are waste disposal activity data obtainable for the current inventory year? Use IPCC default values, per capita or other methods to estimate activity data Estimate CH4 emissions using the IPCC default method NO YES Are waste disposal activity data available for previous years? Is this a key source category (Note 1)? NO NO YES YES Estimate CH4 emissions using the First Order Decay (FOD) method Obtain or estimate data on historical changes in solid waste disposal Decision Tree

  10. Selection of Emission Method <Tier 1 or Tier 2> available data for disposal activity in the landfill? Tier 1 CH4 Emission(ton/yr) = (MSWT x MSWF x MCF x DOC x DOCF x F x 16/12 –R) x (1-OX) • Key parameter for Tier 1 Method (1) Total MSW (2) DOC (3) DOCF (4) MCF (5) R (6) OX

  11. Credibility diagnosis of variable on landfill area • Uncertainty and possibility of error • Accuracy of carbon content according • to waste characteristic Use of existing document data • Landfill quantity(MSWT x MSWF) • National statistics data “national waste generation and treatment status” • DOC(organic carbon) • Carbon content of organic waste • 96 national waste statistics investigation, developed nations data • Development of estimation equation for domestic conditions DOC(%) = 0.114 x FW + 0.320 x PA + 0.366 x WO + 0.571 x RU + 0.061 x SL + 0.114 x AN + 0.285 x OT

  12. DOCF(fraction DOC dissimilated) • IPCC Good Practice basic value : 0.5~0.6 • Average value : 0.55 selection • Comparison of domestic and international data • Dong-a Construction(1997) : domestic waste -> 0.596 • USA EPA : domestic waste -> 0.584 • Uncertainty and possibility of error • DOCF data on sludge, animal and plant waste and other combustibes Use of existing document data Decide by basic experiment

  13. MCF(Methane correction factor) • IPCC basic value • Sanitary landfill : 1.0 • Non-sanitary landfill : 0.4~0.8 • Select 1.0 by MCF • Foundation : present landfill in progress is sanitary landfill • Uncertainty and possibility of error Non-sanitary landfill that has finished landfill Investigation of non-sanitarylandfill’s role in the perspective of generation quantity

  14. R(recovery ratio of CH4) • Status of landfill LFG recovery use • Uncertainty and possibility of error • In cases of flaring, exact estimation of CH4 oxidation quantity is difficult • Difficult to ensure national statistics data • Necessity of systematic data collection • OX(oxidation factor) • Sanitary landfill : 0.1 • Select 0.1 by regarding domestic landfill as sanitary landfill • Uncertainty and possibility of error Difficult to estimate exact OX on-site

  15. Variable value decided at current research studies variable IPCC USA MOE Current Research (2000) (2000) MCF 0.6~1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 DOC(%) estimation equation 18~21 8.2 development of indigenous equation DOCF 0.5~0.6 0.77 0.77 0.55 F 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 R(%) each landfill each landfill 13 13 OX 0.0~0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1

  16. Estimation equation of CH4 generation quantity CH4 total emission quantity(ton/yr) = 0.3667 x DOC x MSWL CH4 original emission quantity(ton/yr) = 0.319 x DOC x MSWL • <comparison of 1997 results> • IPCC : 712,619 ton CH4 • MOE(2000) : 987,384 ton CH4 • Current research result : 637,934 ton CH4

  17. Change of landfill GHG estimation equationTier 1 Tier 2 • Precondition • Investigation on landfill record of national landfill site • Investigation item : landfill quantity, landfill waste, landfill period • Expected problems • Estimation of disposal activity data on non-sanitary landfill • Insufficient investigation on plant waste landfill

  18. Flow diagram of CH4 generation quantity of domestic landfill by Tier 2 Classify national landfill according to landfill characteristic Decide CH4 generation rate constant according to landfill characteristic Decide landfill quantity, landfill year and CH4 generation rate constant In cases of regarding national landfill as singular landfill Estimation of CH4 generation quantity of specific year

  19. Decision Method of for CH4 emission IPCC Method Developed Method CH4 generation dynamic equation

  20. Developed Fortran Codes

  21. <Fortran result> Ulsan Sung-am landfill

  22. Decision of main variable of Tier 2 :CH4 emission factor and CH4 generation rate constant

  23. CH4 emission quantity for each landfill by Tier 1

  24. Comparison between Tier 1 & Tier 2 method Results (Yongin Landfill) Tier 2 Result Tier 1 Result

  25. Conclusion • Introduction and development of improved CH4 estimation equation and finalization of CH4 generation rate constant decision method • IPCC applies yearly average landfill quantity • In cases of severe changes in yearly landfill quantity, credibility of emission estimation results decrease • CH4 emission quantity estimated during landfill had Tier 1 with results much higher than Tier 2 results • Due to the hypothesis that Tier 1 emits landfill waste at the same time as it is landfilled

  26. Precondition to estimate Tier 2 • Collection of landfill record information • Classification according to national landfill characteristics • Landfill waste, landfill method, landfill period and date, landfill quantity, climate • It is assumed that CH4 emission estimation by Tier 2 is possible within 1~2 years in the near future • Unsatisfactory management of statistics data on landfill quantity and characteristics • Due to inconsistency, data follow-up and CH4 emission quantity estimation is difficult • Necessary to develop guide on landfill waste management